Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Lipids o Lipids o Organic substances...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Lipids o Lipids o Organic substances that are relatively insoluble in water and soluble in organic solvents Fats Solid at room temperature Oils Liquid at room temperature o Major Lipid Classes o Fatty acids(part of the triglyceride molecule) o Triglycerides o Phospholipids o Sterols o Fat-soluble vitamins o Structure and Classification of fatty acids o Fatty acids consist of: Chain of carbon atoms Carboxylic acid group Alpha end () -COOH Methyl group Omega end () CH3 o Number of Carbons o Short-chain fatty acids Can be used for food for the cells in the large intestine <8 carbons o Medium chain fatty acids 8-12 carbons o Long chain fatty acids 12 carbons o Fatty Acid Chain Length o Affects Chemical properties Longer chains are more stable and tend to be more solid if saturated Physiological Functions Long chain saturated is beef cover fat and medium chain saturated is palm oil Solubility in water Short chain is more water soluble o Number and position of double bonds o Fatty acids Saturated Single carbon-carbon bonds Unsaturated Double bonds Monounsaturated One double bond Are linked to good health Polyunsaturated 2 double bonds o Number of Double bonds o Influences Physical nature of fatty acid Saturated (SFA) o Solid at room temperature Monounsaturated (MSFA) o Thick liquids or soft solids at room temperature Polyunsaturated (PSFA) o Liquid at room temperature o Cis verses trans fatty acids o Cis double bond Hydrogen atoms positioned on same side of double bond o Trans double bond Hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of double bond Trans fatty acid o Fatty acid nomenclature o Alpha () nomenclature Based on positions and types of double bonds relative to the carboxylic () end of the fatty acids o Omega () nomenclature Fatty acids categorized into groups based on where the first double bond is located relative to the methyl () end 3 fatty acid first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbons from the omega end -6 fatty acid first double bond is located between the sixth and seventh carbons from the omega end o cis 9 -16:1 o cis9= double bond location o 16=number of carbons o 1=number of double bonds o Linoleic and Linolenic acids o Not produced in the body but are essential o Linoleic 18 carbons, 2 cis double bonds, -6 fatty Makes arachidonic acid o Linolenic Acid 18 carbons, 3 cis double bonds, -3 fatty acid Converted to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and elcosapentarnoic acid (EPA) Fish oils o Optimal Lipid Nutrition During Infancy o Conditionally essential fatty acids during infancy Arachidonic acid - 6 fatty acid DHA -3 fatty acid o DHA and arachidonic acid Assists with growth, development of eyes, nervous system, and mental function Found in breast milk Fortification now occurring with infant formula o Functions of the Essential Fatty Acids o Eicosanoids...
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Chapter 7 - Chapter 7: Lipids o Lipids o Organic substances...

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