Chapter-2-notes.pdf - PHILOSOPHY 200: ETHICS I. MORALITY OF...

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PHILOSOPHY 200: ETHICSI.MORALITY OF HUMAN ACT AND MORAL ACCOUNTABILITYDefinition of Human Actrefers to “actions that proceeds from insight into the nature and purpose ofone’s doing and from the consent of free will”(Peschke 1985:247). This actions are donewithKNOWLEDGE, FREEDOM AND CONSENT.Paul Glenn defines Human acts as“an act that proceeds from the deliberate freewill of man”. Here, the person decides andthinks for himself or herself. How can wedistinguishHuman acts from Acts of Man? Actsof man are actions that comes “naturally” even without one’s awareness while doing theaction. These actions (act of man) are done without deliberation, reflection and consent.Thus, Acts of man are the ones we share with animals, for example, breathing, beatingof the heart, etc.Thus, it can be rightful to say thatall human acts are acts of man but not all actsof man are human acts.Basic Elements of Human act1.The Act must be deliberate. It must be performed by a conscious agent who isvery much aware of what she/he is doing and of its consequences. Thus, childrenwho are below the age of reason, the insane, people under the heavy influence ofdrugs and alcohol are said to be incapable of acting knowingly and with sufficientknowledge.2.The Act must be performed in freedom.It must be done by an agent who isacting freely, with his/her own freewill. An action taken against freewill cannot beconsidered as free and voluntary action. The person performing the action mustbe free from any force beyond his/her control, or from any powerful influence fromoutside.3.The Act must be done voluntarily.It must be performed by an agent who decideswillfully to perform the act. The act, to be truly voluntary, must come from the coreof persons being.
Major Determinants of the Morality of Human Acts1. The Act itselfrefers to that action that is done or performed by an agent orsimply what the person does. It answers to the question, WHAT the person does.From this standpoint there are action that can be considered, taken as they are,asOBECTIVELY GOOD, OBJECTIVELY BAD ACTIONS.By their very nature,rape, killing, torture, cheating, etc. are objectively bad actions. While respect,

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