1984 Part One: Chapters 1-2 Irony and Motifs Authors write for a variety of reasons. Some texts intend to inform the reader of specific factual information, some try to persuade the reader of a particular position, and many fictional books just seek to entertain the reader. While Orwell’s 1984 is fictional, it also acts as the author’s warning against the perils of totalitarian governments. Whereas utopian settings portray a perfect world, dystopian societies display cultures dominated by deprivation, oppression, and terror which typically result from corrupt or totalitarian governments. Dystopias are frequently composed as satires to warn readers of what could occur if current conditions are stretched to frightful ends. To this end, the author employs irony and specific motifs to set the mood of this dystopian society. Irony creates a contrast between what is expected or appears to be and what actually occurs. Toset the stage for a dystopian society, Orwell employs several examples of irony.