Ch. 12 Study Guide.pdf - Taylor Brooke Chaney Chapter 12...

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Taylor Brooke Chaney Chapter 12: Complex Inheritance – Study Guide Genetics Q&A: Complexities of human genetics, from sex to depression TYPE IN YOUR ANSWERS USING A DIFFERENT COLOR! 60 points total converted to 100 point scale in gradebook. Complete and submit via Ch. 12 Dropbox Define: (18 points) [GONADS]: Sex organs: ovaries in females, testes in males. [ANDROGENS]: A class of sex hormones, including testosterone, that are present in men and cause male- associated traits like deep voice, growth of facial hair, and defined musculature. [ESTROGENS]: A class of sex hormones, including estradiol, that are higher in women than in men and support female sexual development and function. [AUTOSOMES]: Paired chromosomes present in both males and females; all chromosomes except the X and Y chromosomes. [SEX CHROMOSOMES]: Paired chromosomes that differ between males and females. Females have XX, and males have XY [X-LINKED TRAIT]: A phenotype determined by an allele on an X chromosome. [PEDIGREE]: A visual representation of the occurrence of phenotypes across generations. [Y-CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS]: The comparison of sequences on the Y chromosomes of different individuals to examine paternity and paternal ancestry. [INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE]: A form of inheritance in which heterozygotes have a phenotype that is intermediate between the two homozygotes [CODOMINANCE]: A form of inheritance in which the effects of both alleles are displayed in the phenotype of a heterozygote [CONTINUOUS VARIATION]: Variation in a population showing an unbroken range of phenotypes rather than discrete categories [POLYGENIC TRAIT]: A trait whose phenotype is determined by the interaction among alleles of more than one gene [MULTIFACTORIAL INHERITANCE]: An interaction between genes and the environment that contributes to a phenotype or trait [ANEUPLOIDY]: An abnormal number of one or more chromosomes (either extra or missing copies) [NONDISJUNCTION]: The failure of chromosomes to separate accurately during cell division; nondisjunction in meiosis leads to aneuploid gametes [TRISOMY 21]: Having an extra copy of chromosome 21; also known as Down syndrome [AMNIOCENTESIS]: A procedure that removes fluid surrounding the fetus to obtain and analyze the chromosomal makeup of fetal cells [KARYOTYPE]: The chromosomal makeup of cells. Karyotype analysis can be used to detect chromosomal disorders prenatally. Answer. (33 points total) Explain how sex is determined by chromosomes in human children. (1) Sex chromosomes are X and Y (pair 23) and they determine an organisms gender. Depending on whether the organism is XX or XY will determine if it is a male or female.

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