HIST1020 Notes Exam1 - HIST1020 Exam 1 The...

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HIST1020- Exam 1The Enlightenment (1/9)believed to have caused many revolutions, but not truethese philosophers used to justifyreached height at 1750; grew out of the scientific revolutionthinkers often challenging monarchy, church-through reason-wanted to improve society by evaluating and reforming these institutions-came from the “Bourgeoisie” –upper middle class (doctors, lawyers, wealthy merchants, educated)-spread through written works, thanks to printing press-also spread orally –academics, coffee houses, salons- spread rapidlySalons- drawing/music rooms in houses where parties took placeSalonnieres- hosting these parties; women large influence in movementVoltaire & Freedomcalled for freedom of religionpub. Over 1700 worksbegan as playwrightnot well liked, imprisoned, exiledcriticized institutions which infringed on freedomsFrancois-Marie Arouet- (son of below)Jean Calas- believed to have murdered his newly catholic son (actually a suicide)put to deathVoltaire defends CalasJean Jacques Rousseau & EqualityLittle education“Discourse on the Origin of Inequality” -1755othe root of inequality was at property ownership (corrupted individuals)onature dictates we live in communal society“Social Contract” -1762osociety should subordinate themselves to the communityoorganizations have been built which take freedomsodirect democracyAdam Smitheconomic equalityattacked mercantilism- promotes exportsargued for Laissez-faire- gov’t hands-off approachoallowed people to accumulate wealth“Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the wealth of the Nations” -1776John Locke
HIST1020- Exam 1popular sovereignty- law created and upheld by the will of the people“Two Treatises of Gov’t” -1690olife, liberty, & propertyogovt created by will of people; people have right to reform it/rebel, if need be (treason)*American Revolution utilizes these philosophers to justify their actionsOrigins of the American Revolution (1/11)caused by economic and political grievances against Great Britian, following 7 Years War (French and Indian War) and Pontiac’s rebellionobelieved American colonies should help them pay the war debtsobelieved a standing army should keep American colonies “safe”, and colonies should help finance this armyoissued Proclamation of 1763- prevented Ams from moving west of Appalachian mnts, angered many, especially lower class (property ownership was ultimate goalColonial TaxationImposed to help British with war debts:Sugar Act of 1764- instituted by Prime Minister; supposed to help the colonistsolowers the price, but smugglers receive harsher punishmentStamp Act of 1765oHad to purchase special paper/stamp for certain official documentsoDirect taxCaused Americans to question whether Britain had a right to tax themPrior, Americans taxed themselves and gave money to the English crownQuartering Act of 1765- issued by Charles Townsend,o

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