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unit3studyoutline - 1. Thermodynamics and life: Considering...

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1 . Thermodynamics and life : Considering the laws of thermodynamics that apply to all aspects of our universe, how can living organisms, characterized by a high degree of ordered structure, exist in the universe? Be sure to include the following in your response. a statement of the two laws of thermodynamics in terms of the quantity and quality of energy in the universe, o The first law of thermodynamiscs states that the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. It can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed. o The second law of energy states that the quality of energy in the universe is not constant. . During every transformation, some energy becomes unusable. In most of these transformations, some energy is converted to heat which is the lowest quality. Cells cannot use this heat to perform work because it is lost to the surroundings. The heat is disordered form of energy, and its release makes the universe more random and disorganized. The amount of disorder in a system is called entropy. a discussion of the relationship between energy and more ordered vs. less ordered (i.e. more random) arrangement of matter, o When matter is more ordered it takes less energy to make into a complete order. When matter is less ordered it takes a lot more energy. an explanation of the connection between the following properties of life: a high degree of ordered structure and the ability to acquire and use energy, and o Humans are highly structured organisms that require and use energy in order to maintain homeostasis. At first all humans form from many tiny cells and generates into organized structure. To get from random to ordered it takes a lot of energy so in order to become highly structure and organized, humans are able to acquire and use energy. o a discussion of how cells handle their need for immediate energy and for long- and short-term energy storage, including the importance of the following molecules for energy metabolism o polysaccharides - long term ex.) starch that is found in plants and glycogen is in animals. o monosaccharides, and short term ex.) glucose , it gets broken down by glycolysis to pyruvate. o ATP. immediate energy use. 2. Metabolism : Define and discuss metabolism in eukaryotic cells. Be sure to include the following in your response. Metabolism is all of the chemical activities in the cell. a description of catabolism and anabolism and the types of chemical reactions associated with synthesis and breakdown of macromolecules o Catabolism breaking down or degrade The opposite process called hydrolysis occurs when one water molecule is added to a polymer in order to break the bonds. This chemical reaction occurs when a polymer needs to be broken down into a monomer. o
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unit3studyoutline - 1. Thermodynamics and life: Considering...

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