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232%20Chap%202%20outline - Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive...

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Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive What is Matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space States of matter Solid – has definite shape and volume Liquid – has definite volume, changeable shape Gas – has changeable shape and volume What is Energy? The capacity to do work (i.e. put matter into motion) Kinetic energy – energy in action Potential energy – energy of position; stored (inactive) energy Forms of Energy Chemical – stored in the bonds of chemical compounds Electrical – results from the movement of charged particles (electrons or ions) Mechanical – directly involved in moving matter Radiant or electromagnetic – energy traveling in waves (i.e., visible light, radio waves, X rays etc.) The Composition of Matter What are elements? Unique substances that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means Atoms – more-or-less identical building blocks for each element Atomic symbol – one or two-letter chemical shorthand for each element Major Elements of the Human Body Make up >96% of the body Carbon (C) Oxygen (O)
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Hydrogen (H) Nitrogen (N) Lesser Elements of the Human Body Lesser elements that make up 3.9% of the body include: Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S), Sodium (Na), Chlorine (Cl), Magnesium (Mg), Iodine (I), Iron (Fe) Trace Elements of the Human Body Trace elements make up less than 0.01% of the body They are required in minute amounts, some are necessary for enzyme function The Structure of Atoms Review Questions If an atom has 12 protons and 15 neutrons, how many electrons does it have? A. 15 B. 27 C. 12 D. 3 If an atom of an element has an atomic number of 12 and has 15 neutrons, how many protons does it have? A. 12 B. 27 C. 15 D. 3 If an atom of an element has an atomic number of 10 and mass number of 25, how many neutrons does it have? A. 10 B. 15
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C. 35 D. 5 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus The nucleus consists of protons and neutrons Protons (p + ) – have a positive charge and a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (amu) Neutrons ( n 0 ) – have no charge and a mass of 1 amu (n 0 can vary in number) Atomic Structure: Electrons Electrons are found orbiting the nucleus Electrons (e - ) – have a negative charge and 1/2000 the mass of a proton (i.e. 0 amu) Number of e - = p + (i.e. atoms of elements have a neutral charge) Models of the Atom Planetary Model – electrons move around the nucleus in fixed, circular orbits Orbital Model electrons are present in a shell or cloud where they are most likely to be found Identifying Elements Atomic number – equal to the number of protons (identifies an element) Mass number – equal to the mass (number) of the protons and neutrons Isotope – atoms with same number of protons but a different number of neutrons Radioisotopes – atoms that undergo spontaneous decay called radioactivity
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 232 taught by Professor Turner during the Spring '08 term at Coastal Carolina University.

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232%20Chap%202%20outline - Chapter 2 Chemistry Comes Alive...

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