Chapter_11-_Lifetime_fitness_and_wellness - CHAPTER 11 1. A...

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CHAPTER 111.A drug is a substance that has a physiological and/or psychological effect when ingestedor introduced into the body. These include prescription medications, over-the-counter-drugs, and illegal substances. Inappropriate drug use can lead to addiction. Any drugcan be misused or abused. Drug abuse is the intentional, inappropriate use of a legaldrug or the use of illegal drugs. Drug use and abuse can have physical andpsychological side effects. Most prescription and over-the-counter drugs, when takencorrectly, produce insignifi-cant side effects for the user. Yet, physical and psychologicalside effects are commonly experienced by individuals who use drugs. Physical sideeffects include the following:2.ç Allergic reactions—vary from mild rashes or hives to serious conditions such as ana-phylactic shock3.ç Blindness ç Disorientation ç Seizures ç Blood disorders ç Heart failure, heart attack çKidney and liver failure ç Memory difficulties4.Psychological side effects influence how the drug user thinks, feels and behaves. Theyinclude the following:5.ç Depression ç Agitation ç Mood alterations ç Anxiety ç Paranoia ç Forgetfulness çIrritability ç Bipolar disorder6.Alcohol-ism, also known as alcohol dependency, is a disease that includes craving, astrong need or urge to drink; loss of control, not being able to stop drinking once drinkinghas begun; physical dependence, withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, shakiness,sweating; and tolerance, the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol to get “high.”Alcoholism can be di-vided into three stages: the adaptive stage, dependence, andconclusion. In the adaptive stage alcohol is used as a means to escape. Drinking is nolonger a social activity but a habitual means of psychological escape from problems. Thedrinker develops a tolerance to alcohol. During the dependence stage is drinker isunable to stop after the initial drink. Friends, family members and co-workers becomeaware and very concerned about the user’s drink-ing. The user usually attempts toconceal drinking from others, deny that a drinking problem exists and experience,hangovers, hand tremors, and blackouts. As the disease progresses, the drinkerbecomes more and more dependent on alcohol. The drinker experiences the physical,occupational, and social consequences of alcoholism. The conclusion stage of al-coholism is characterized by chronic loss of control. Alcohol is now needed by thedrinker to function. Severe withdrawal symptoms such as hallucinations, seizures,tremors are ex-perienced by the user when attempts are made to stop drinking. Deathcan occur as well7.. The categories include alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence (described above),and alcohol-related consequences or problems. The frequency and/or quantity of alcoholconsumed refer to alcohol consumption. Frequency refers to how often an individualdrinks, whether it is daily, weekly, or several times a month. The number of drinksconsumed on a single occasion refers to quantity. A combination of quantity and

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Term
Fall
Professor
Ms.Hoffman
Tags
Alcoholic beverage

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