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finalstudyguide - Intro to Psych Final Study Guide • •...

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Intro to Psych Final Study Guide Hindsight bias : I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon Overconfidence : More confident than correct Curious skepticism : passion to explore and avoid being misled Theories lead to hypotheses, which lead to research, which leads to the generation  or refinement of theories Scientific theory:  explains using principles that organize and predict behaviors or  events Hypotheses:  testable predictions Case studies:  psychologists study one person in depth to discover universal  principles Survey:  explores more people in less depth with self-reported behaviors and  attitudes, using a random sample False consensus effect:  tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share  our beliefs or behaviors Population:  all cases in a group Random sample:  randomly selected cases that fairly represent the population Naturalistic observation:  observe and record behavior in a natural environment,  no manipulations Correlation:  extent to which two factors vary together Illusory correlation:  perception of a relationship where none exists Experiment : independent variables are manipulated to observe the effect Double-blind procedure : participants and research staff don’t know whether the  participant received treatment or a placebo Placebo effect : experimental results caused by expectations alone Experimental condition : participants are exposed to treatment Control condition : comparison for evaluating effect Random assignment : participants are assigned to experimental and control  conditions by chance Independent variable : factor that is manipulated Dependent variable : factor that may change in response to manipulations of the  independent variable Descriptive : observe and record behavior Correlational : detect relationships Experimental : cause and effect
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68% of the data fall within a standard deviation of the mean 95% fall within 2 standard deviations 99.7% fall within 3 standard deviations Neuron : nerve cell Dendrite : extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses  toward the cell body Axon : extension of a neuron through which messages pass to other neurons or to  muscles or glands Myelin sheath : encases the fibers of neurons, enables faster transmission of  neural impulses Action potential : neural impulse Threshold : level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse Neurotransmitters : chemical messengers that cross synaptic gap Electrical impulses travel down the axon, cross the synaptic gap with 
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