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Lab Terms II (07-112)

Lab Terms II (07-112) - DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL PHYSICAL...

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DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGICAL & PHYSICAL SCIENCES PRACTICAL NUMBER TWO TERMS TO KNOW Structures of the Respiratory System Respiratory System o Functions include: Pulmonary ventilation Movement of air into and out of the lungs External respiration Movement of O 2 from the lungs to the blood and CO 2 from the blood to the lungs Transport of respiratory gases Transport of O 2 from the lungs to tissue and of CO 2 from the tissues to the lungs This is accomplished by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid Internal respiration Movement of O 2 from blood to tissue and of CO 2 from tissue to blood Nose o It is divided into external nose and nasal cavity external nose nostrils or nares nasal cavity lies posterior to the external nose o Functions provides an airway for respiration moistens and warms entering air filters and cleans inspired air serves as a resonating (receiving) chamber for speech houses the olfactory receptors Nasal cavity o During breathing, air enters the cavity by passing through the nostrils or nares o Divided by a midline structure called the nasal septum Pharynx o Connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and esophagus inferiorly respectively Larynx or Voice box o Functions provides an open airway 1
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acts as a switching mechanism to route food and air voice production Trachea or Wind pipe o Structure Lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium Hyaline C-shaped cartilaginous rings Ring is completed by the trachealis muscle posterior where it is related to the esophagus to allow for esophageal expansion during swallowing o Functions air passageway cleans, warms, and moistens incoming air Carina o The expanded last tracheal cartilage o Point of bifurcation Bronchial tree o The site where the conducting zone structures give way to the respiratory zone structures o Right and left main (primary) bronchi o Lobar (secondary) bronchi o Segmental (tertiary) bronchi Bronchiole (little bronchi) o Smaller than 1mm in diameter o Terminal bronchioles (end of conducting zone) o Respiratory bronchiole (beginning of respiratory zone) Alveoli (small cavity) o Composed of simple squamous epithelium o Provides a tremendous surface area for gas exchange Lungs o Occupy all of the thoracic cavity except the mediastinum o Located in the pleural cavity Structures of the Upper Respiratory System Nasal bones o Form the bridge of the nose Nostrils or Nares (formerly external nares) o Air enters this area before entering the nasal cavity Posterior nasal aperture or Choanae (formerly internal nares) o It is the opening between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx Olfactory epithelium o Located in the roof of the nasal cavity 2
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o Intensifies the sense of smell Ethmoid bone o A bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain Frontal bone o
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