psychlinguistics midterm real

psychlinguistics midterm real - Andrew Gaddis...

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Andrew Gaddis Psycholinguistics Midterm General (Choice b: Bottom up vs. Top Down) Bottom-up processing is stimulus-driven processing whereas top-down processing is driven by our knowledge, experience, and intentions, which are relatively voluntary and stimulus independent. For example, during bottom-up processing of a word, we notice the orthography and phonology of the word- the arrangements and sounds of letters in words. Our senses convert these stimuli to neural signals that are sent to primary, low-level areas of the brain. We then integrate the features in high-level areas. During top-down processing of a word, we can use our lexical knowledge, for instance, to identify the incoming word as we connect the word to our knowledge of other related words and concepts. Areas of the brain that coordinate information would be activated first during this high-level thinking. A similar analysis is possible with attention. When a child is given a cue about where an image will appear during a video game, the child will use top-down processing to selectively attend to that particular area. The child later uses bottom-up processing to analyze details of the image once it appears so he or she can make a response decision. In cognitive theory, bottom-up means beginning analysis with the well known, using basic systems and concrete data to work up to the more complicated explanations and mechanisms of higher-level cognitive processes. Top-down theory, on the other hand , is the use of data on higher-level functions, such as language, to work backwards down the cognitive ladder and discover information about more lower, more basic processes.
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course COGSCI 300 taught by Professor Badecker during the Fall '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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psychlinguistics midterm real - Andrew Gaddis...

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