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# test 2 study guide - Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 6-Variables...

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Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 6—Variables and Controls 1. How do you operationally define variables? a. In terms of the operations needed to produce them i. Allows replication of study ii. Ensures study is being conducted in uniform way iii. Answers question, “How are we going to measure this variable?” iv. No operation definition is perfect 1. examples-hunger, love, drunk, depression 2. Compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative variables. Qualitative Quantitative -variable that values in kind -variable that values in amount -not numerical -typically numerical -ex: psychiatric diagnosis, description of appearance -ex: scores on a test, decibels, temperature, age, etc. 3. Compare and contrast continuous and discrete variables. Continuous Discrete -variable forms a continuum -variable that is not on a continuum -can be represented by whole or fractional units -represented by whole units -ex: temp., age, time, questionnaire scores -ex: sex, race, diagnosis 4. What are the 4 Types of Independent Variables? Know what they mean. -IV—stimulus or aspect of the environment that the experimenter directly manipulates to determine its influences on behavior 1. Physiological a physiological state of the participant that the experimenter manipulates Ex: hunger states, giving a drug or placebo for migraines 2. experience manipulation of the amount of type of training or learning Ex: give varying amounts of cues for a memory list; give varying amounts of time to learn a list of spelling words 3. stimulus aspect of the environment that the experimenter manipulates Ex: temperature in the classroom, have confederate wear blonde or brunette wig when interacting with participant 4. participant aspects of the participant that are treated as if they are IV’s Ex: look at whether age affects depression, look at whether Caucasian children are treated different than African-American children in classroom 5. How do you manipulate Independent Variables? 1. presence vs. absence technique —one group of participants receives the variable while the other group does not Ex: Group 1 = experimental cancer drug; Group 2 = placebo 2. amount of variable —each group gets a varying amount of the variable

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Ex: Group 1 = 100 mg. experimental cancer drug; Group 2 = 75 mg. experimental cancer drug 3. type of variable —each group gets a different category of the variable Ex: Group 1 = 100 mg. experimental cancer drug; Group 2 = 100 mg. currently used cancer drug 6. How do you select your Dependent Variable? - use your hypothesis Ex: studying the effects of eating breakfast on intelligence—choose a valid measure of intelligence or IQ - past research Ex: studying the effects of depression on pain-read past research to determine the best way to measure pain (i.e. code pain behaviors, pain questionnaire) 7. How do you record your Dependent Variable? -
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test 2 study guide - Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 6-Variables...

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