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1 - Methodology - RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY SOCIALIZATION...

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Unformatted text preview: RESEARCH AND METHODOLOGY SOCIALIZATION INDIVIDUAL IN SOCIETY QUESTIONS • Book • Assignments SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND RESEARCH METHODS • Sociology is a science SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH • Research may be either inductive or • deductive. INDUCTIVE RESEARCH DEDUCTIVE RESEARCH RESEARCH METHODS • Qualitative AND • Quantitative HISTORICAL RECORDS INTERVIEWS AND LIFE HISTORIES STRUCTURED INTERVIEW LIFE HISTORIES PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION SURVEY SAMPLE REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE RAMDOM SAMPLING CONTROLLED EXPERIMENT 3 Steps to controlled experiments • Pretest . • The experimental group the control group • Posttest. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHODS COMPARED • Both Comte and Martineau QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHODS COMPARED • Durkheim QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE METHODS COMPARED • Weber THE 1960s • During the 1960s, a period known for controversy. ISSUES IN CONDUCTING SOCIOLOGICAL RESEACH • Scientists studying human social behavior REACTIVITY • The term reactivity refers to the fact that people react to being studied and may behave differently from the way they do. HAWTHORNE EFFECT • Hawthorne Plant of the Western Electric Company near Chicago several decades ago. WHAT HAPPENED? EXPERIMENT CONCLUSION ETHICS AND RESEACH • To protect people’s right to privacy • Confidentiality • Informed Consent REVIEW OF ASSIGNMENT SOCIALIZATION • What is Socialization? it refers to the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture Learning culture – figuring out what is acceptable, the law of normal values, learning how to adapt in other situations, knowing how to act at a certain time, different slang terms for each culture, ‘evolution’ of language terms, different customs and traditions, PERSONALITY • A person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling. • One builds a personatliy by internalizing-taking in-our surroundings. SOCIAL ISOLATION • Researchers believe that cutting people off from the social world can be harmful. Research with monkeys • In a classic study, psychologists Harry and Margaret Harlow(1962) placed rhesus monkeys, whose behavior is in some ways surprisingly similar to human behavior, in various conditions of social isolation. EXPERIMENT • They found that complete isolation (with adequate nutrition) for even six months seriously disturbed the monkeys’ development. When returned to their group, these monkeys were passive, anxious, and fearful. EXPERIMENT • The harlows then placed infant monkeys in cages with an artificial ‘mother’ make of wire mesh with a wooden head and the nipple of a feeding tube where the breast would be. These monkeys also survived but were unable to interact with others. EXPERIMENT • But monkeys isolated with a fake mother covered with soft cloth did better, clinging to her more closely than those with ‘mothers’ of just wire mesh. Because these monkeys showed less developmental damage than the earlier groups, the Harlow concluded that the monkeys benefited from the contact. EXPERIMENT CONCLUSION • The experiment confirmed how important it is that adults cradle infants lovingly. ISOLATED CHILDREN...
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