6 - Student Outline - Social Institutions - Religion - Health

6 - Student Outline - Social Institutions - Religion - Health

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SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS – RELIGION – HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INSTITUTIONS
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Social Structure Structure occupies an important place in sociology. Although sociologists may disagree about its origin, constituent elements, or power over everyday life, few would argue that social structure-the social institutions, organizations, groups, statuses and roles, values, and norms that add order and predictability or private lives-doesn’t exist at all. It would be impossible to draw any meaningful conclusions about human behavior if we started with the notion that society is haphazard and that things happen by chance alone.
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Social Structure
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Social Structure mistakes •Obvious errors in our judgement can be linked to broader system failures. Example: medical mistakes. About 1.3 million people are injured by medical errors each year in the U.S. (1995). Wrong perscriptions, wrong surguries, etc.
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SOCIAL DILEMMAS •Although social structure can clearly affect the lives of individuals, individual actions can also have an enormous effect on the structure and stability of an entire community. •We take for granted groups that try to preserve environmental dilemmas.
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Cross and Guyer, 1980 - Messick and Brewer, 1983 •People often don’t voluntarily act to achieve something good … they look for what helps themselves too.
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The Free-Rider •It occurs when people refrain from contributing something to a common resource when the resource is available anyways. •Why pay for something you can get for free?
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Solutions to Social Dilemma •Establish communication between individuals – helps each other to understand what each other are up to. •Restrictive rules or laws to prevent people from seeking their self interested goals.
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BUREAUCRACY- MAX WEBER •a large hierarchical organization that is governed by formal rules and regulations •According to famous 19 th century sociologist Max Weber, it is the most efficient means to accomplish a particular task/manage large groups of people. He felt that in a bureaucracy all decisions are made purely on a basis of what will get the job done.
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CHARACTERISTICS OF BUREACRACY Division of Labor Specialization Hierarchy of officers Rules and regulations Technical competence Impersonality Formal, written communications
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PROBLEMS OF BUREACRACY •Inefficiency and ritualism: too much red tape. Ritualism because it
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6 - Student Outline - Social Institutions - Religion - Health

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