13 - THEORISTS THAT INFLUENCED SOCIOLOGY 2007R

13 - THEORISTS THAT INFLUENCED SOCIOLOGY 2007R - THEORISTS...

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THEORISTS THAT INFLUENCE SOCIOLOGY SOCIOLOGY 105
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Auste Comte - Founder of Sociology (1798-1857)
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Auguste Comte 1798-1857 The father of sociology Born in France
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Auste Comte - Founder of Sociology Comte, a French philosopher, was the founder of Positivism. Positivism is a philosophical system of thought maintaining that the goal of knowledge is simply to describe the phenomena experienced, not to question whether it exists or not.
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Comte Comte sought to apply the methods of observation and experimentation, as was beginning to be used in the hard sciences, to a field that we now know as sociology.
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Comte He believed that the solution of persistent social problems might be had by the application of certain hierarchical rules; he believed in the progress of mankind toward a superior state of civilization by means of the science of sociology, itself .
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Comte In his later years Comte became involved in mysticism, to the point where Positivism became, in spite of its earlier claims to its scientific approach, more of a religion, than anything else. Comte's cardinal position was this: "The greatest problem, then, is to raise social feeling by artificial effort to the position which in the natural condition is held by selfish feeling."
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Major Works of Comte Systeme de Politique Positive On Liberty
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Herbert Spencer, 1820-1903.
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Herbert Spencer Born April 27, 1820 in Derby, England Located in the heart of British industry Oldest of nine children, the only to survive Religious/political/philosophical background Nonconformist Dissenters Partial Quaker in thinking Supported laissez-faire economics (Coser 1977:102-103; Perdue 1986:56)
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Spencer The Victorian biologist and early social philosopher Herbert Spencer was a great rival of Charles Darwin’s. it was Spencer, and not Darwin, who popularized the term "evolution" itself and coined the now-ubiquitous phrase, "survival of the fittest".
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Spencer Although no longer influential in biology, his extension of his theory of evolution to psychology and sociology remains important.
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Spencer From the Romanticists, Spencer borrowed the concept of the interrelationship between an "evolving" aggregate and its constituent parts. As an aggregate history progresses, greater specialization and hence diversity is "created" by the Lamarckian adaptation of individual physical and behavioral characteristics to environmental circumstances.
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Major Works of Herbert Spencer Social Statics , 1851. - (Ch. 19” Right to Ignore the State”) The Principles of Psychology , 1855. First Principles, 1862. Reasons for Dissenting from the Philosophy of M. Comte The Principles of Sociology , 1876-96. The Study of Sociology , 1880. The Man versus the State , 1884.
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Karl Marx, 1818-1883
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Karl Marx 1818-1883 Born in Germany His father was a Jewish lawyer who converted to Protestantism prior to Karl’s birth in order to be allowed to hold public office (Ashley and Orenstein 1990:215-216 )
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Karl Marx Society , according to Marx, comprised a moving balance of antithetical forces that
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