hist 1301 Chapter 3 Notes

hist 1301 Chapter 3 Notes - CHAPTER 3: MEETING OF CULTURES...

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CHAPTER 3: MEETING OF CULTURES I. INDIANS AND EUROPEANS A. INDIAN WORKERS IN THE SPANISH BORDERLANDS 1. Spanish sought direct control over the Indians who labored in their mines or field. 2. Encomiendas were granted to influential Spaniards in New Mexico and gave them the right to collect tribute from the native peoples living on a specific piece of land. 3. Repartimiento was a mandatory draft of Indian labor for public projects. 4. Rescate is the practice of acquiring laborers by ransoming captives that Indian groups seized from one another. B. THE WEB OF TRADE 1. Native Americans thought of trade not simply as an economic activity but rather as one aspect of a broader alliance between peoples. The French were the most successful in adapting to the Native American understanding of trade. 2. The Beaver Wars was a long struggle between the Hurons and Iroquois; because of European demands for furs, the Hurons and Iroquois both hunted beavers at an unsustainable rate and had killed nearly all the beavers on their own lands. The Iroquois triumphed in the struggle because the Dutch equipped them with guns, whereas the French were reluctant to arm the Hurons. C. DISPLACING NATIVE AMERICANS IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES 1. In New France and New Netherlands, Indians outnumbered Europeans. 2. Often what Europeans viewed as “vacant” lands were in fact either being used for nonfarming activities or recovering from human occupation in order to be farmed in years to come. 3. Some colonists, such as Roger Williams (Rhode Island) and William Penn (Pennsylvania), insisted on buying land from the Indians. 4. Colonists often seized Indian lands in the aftermath of war. D. BRINGING CHRISTIANITY TO NATIVE PEOPLES 1. Catholic missionaries in Spanish colonies a. Franciscan priests were the driving force behind Spain’s efforts to control its colonies of New Mexico and Florida. They lived near native villages in order to convert their inhabitants to Catholicism. b. Conversions often followed epidemics that devastated native villages but spared the Spanish, leading many Indians to wonder if the Christian God might be more powerful than their own gods. c. Some groups, such as the Zuni and Hopi peoples, rejected Christianity altogether. d. Mestizos- people of mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry. 2. French Jesuits in Canada a. French priests exhibited “magical” powers of clocks and magnets before Indian audiences and impressed native peoples by predicting eclipses.
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b. Some converts formed separate native Christian communities. Kateri Tekakwitha became the first Native American candidate for sainthood. 3. Missionaries in English colonies a. The Protestant English were less successful at attracting Native American converts. Puritans frowned on the rituals and religious objects that drew Indians to Catholicism.
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2009 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Powers during the Summer '08 term at Lone Star College.

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hist 1301 Chapter 3 Notes - CHAPTER 3: MEETING OF CULTURES...

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