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The Advantages of Subway Tunnels as a Solution on Traffic Congestion in ManilaA Research Paper Submitted to the Faculty ofSenior High School DepartmentFar Eastern University – AlabangIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the SubjectPractical Research 2: Quantitative ResearchAndrea Margareth BaylonBernard James CamoJasper TR CatacataJhoan Mae GuadamorJohn Kenneth AbalosLillian Ellise EboraNathaniel Andrei CastilloPauline Kyle AmperSamantha Lorraine CabungcalOctober 2020
The Advantages of Subway Tunnels as a Solution on Traffic Congestion in ManilaAndrea Margareth BaylonBernard James CamoJasper TR CatacataJhoan Mae GuadamorJohn Kenneth AbalosLillian Ellise EboraNathaniel Andrei CastilloPauline Kyle AmperSamantha Lorraine CabungcalA research paper submitted to the faculty of Senior High School Department, Far EasternUniversity – Alabang, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the subject PracticalResearch 2: Quantitative Research, under the supervision of Ms. Lesley WongINTRODUCTIONOne of the worst cities to have traffic congestion is Manila, ranked by The TrafficIndex 2019 by TomTom, worldwide congestion in cities ranking. According to a locationtechnology specialist, 416 cities have been surveyed and the Indian city of Bengalurutopped followed by Manila. It was not clear why both Manila and Bengaluru were notconsidered to be tied top spot. According to a study of the Japan InternationalCooperation Agency, traffic congestion is the reason why the country loses 3.5 billion₱daily. If the issue remains by 2035, the loss could reach up to 5.4 billion. In order to₱balance the queues on its various arms in the event of heavy congestion, modifying thegreen traffic light duration is suggested. Thus, the vehicle queues should be arranged to
let the minimum number of junctions be blocked by waiting vehicles. According to TheNational Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine (1970), using a controlstrategy that involves the use of sample data feedback loops at each junction will solvethe problem. However, a new problem rises which is the possibility of instability becauseof the positive feedback effects of traffic coupling. First to be considered is the activebehavior of an isolated junction then the analysis is increased to a network of junctions.Using coordinating signals transmitted between junctions can help maintain the stabilityof the network. Travelling in Manila today is identified by high levels of congestion, slowtravel speeds, lengthy travel period, and restricted road capacity. Because of theincreasing growth of the population and income, the situation will only get worse. Localtraffic management can no longer solve the problem due to their insufficiency. Solutionssuch as maintaining the supply to the demand should be considered together withincreased road capacity. Expanding roads is just not enough to sustain the mobility ofvehicles. The advantage of underground tunnels as roads is its significantly low cost.