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Unformatted text preview: SECTION 1 Cognitive Neuroscience of Perception & Memory Thursday, September 06, 2007 Genetic & Biological Foundations • Genes (& environment) affect brain which determines mind, behavior, neurological and psychiatric disorders • 23 human Chromosome pairs: 1 per parent • Gene = unit of heredity • DNA sequence of these molecules codes proteins that direct cell activity • Genetics • Inherited characteristics • Processes turn genes on/off • Nature & Nurture interact • Human Genome Project • # of genes: 30,000 • Human complexity because of genes + environment Heredity Involves Passing along Genes through Reproduction • Gregor Mendel identifies dominant & recessive genes (patterns of inheritance) • Alleles=versions of gene • P dominant expressed whenever present • P recessive expressed only with similar gene from other parent • Genotype=genetic constitution of an organism (PP, Pp, pP, pp) • Phenotype=observed physical characteristic due to genes + environment • 75% Purple Flowers Behavioral Genetics= genes + environment interact to affect psychological processes ( nature + nurture) • Homozygous: RR, Heterozygous: Rr = rolling tongues • Homozygous: rr = cannot roll their tongue • Genetics of tongue rolling= genes + environment • Neurons in the brain control tongue rolling behavior Neurological Disorders • Case of Multiple Sclerosis • Autoimmune attack on neurons (myelin) • Impaired vision, speech, touch, movement, attention, memory, decision making, mood • Nature: Sibs 10-15x monozygotic twins 30% • Nurture: 5x more in the temperate regions than topics The Neuron & Neurobiology • Neuron is the basic cellular unit of the nervous system, specialized for communication • Functions • Reception (get info): inputs go into dendrites Summation: several inputs add up, determines how high the current is in the cell • Conduction (integrate) What kind of signal? • Transmission (pass info): uses the axon to transmit info to terminal buttons, which is pushed off into the synapse Action Potential • Saltatory Conduction: Jumping from one Node of Ranvier to the next Absolute Refractory: Less Potassium Ions, Takes time for ion to charge, ion can't receive any information Relative Refractory Period: Neural Signal can travel, has to be STRONG Depolarization: excitatory input, Electro potential is positive, process will start Hyper polarization: inhibitory input, EP is negative, Process will not start DCBA Dendrite To Cell Body to Axon • All or None theory • Neuron to neuron communication • Neurons separated across the synaptic cleft • Action potential initiates release of synaptic vesicles filled with neurotransmitter...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSY 001 taught by Professor Multipleprofs during the Fall '08 term at Tufts.
- Fall '08