hist 1301 chapter 6 notes and quiz

hist 1301 chapter 6 notes and quiz - CHAPTER 6: THE WAR FOR...

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THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE 1774—1783 I. THE OUTBREAK OF WAR AND THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, 1774— 1776 A. Mounting Tensions 1. In May 1774, General Thomas Gage, the commander in chief of the British army in America, replaced Thomas Hutchinson as governor of Massachusetts. 2. Calling itself the Provincial Congress, the legislature in October 1774 appointed an emergency executive body, the Committee of Safety , headed by John Hancock, which began stockpiling weapons and organizing militia volunteers. Some localities had already provided for the formation of special companies of Minute Men , who were to be ready at “a minute’s warning in Case of an alarm.” B. The Loyalists’ Dilemma 1. Most loyalists were farmers, though officeholders and professionals were more numerous among them than in the population at large. 2. The loyalists numbered close to half a million men and women—some 20 percent of the colonies’ free population. C. British Coercion and Conciliation 1. Few British voters paid much attention to colonial affairs or to opposition criticism of Prime Minister Lord North’s handling of them. 2. Under North’s direction, in February 1775, Parliament resolved that Massachusetts was in rebellion and prohibited the New England colonies from trading outside the British Empire or sending their ships to the North Atlantic fishing grounds. 3. Parliament endorsed Lord North’s Conciliatory Proposition , which pledged not to tax the colonies if they would voluntarily contribute to the defense of the empire. D. The Battles of Lexington and Concord 1. On the night of April 18, 1775, General Gage assembled 700 men on the Boston Common and marched them toward the little towns of Lexington and Concord. Their mission was to arrest rebel leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock and destroy the military supplies the Committee of Safety had assembled at Concord. 2. When the British soldiers reached Lexington at down, they found about 70 armed militiamen drawn up in formation on the village green. The British responded to the single shot with a volley that killed or wounded 18 Americans. 3. The British troops pressed on to Concord and burned what few supplies the Americans had not been able to hide. As the British troops retreated to Boston, patriot Minute Men and other militia harried them from both sides of the road; 273 British were dead, wounded, or missing. 4. News of the fighting at the Battles of Lexington and Concord spread quickly. (Philadelphia newspaper— Pennsylvania Packet ; Williamsburg’s Virginia Gazette ). The shots fired would be the “heard round the world” quoted Ralph Waldo Emerson. They signaled the start of the American Revolution. And that revolution help inspire the French Revolution in 1789 and other revolutions in Europe and Latin America. E.
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hist 1301 chapter 6 notes and quiz - CHAPTER 6: THE WAR FOR...

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