hist 1301 chapter 9

hist 1301 chapter 9 - CHAPTER 9: THE TRIUMPH AND COLLAPSE...

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CHAPTER 9: THE TRIUMPH AND COLLAPSE OF JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANISM 1800-1824 I. JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY A. Introduction 1. Unlike the Hamiltonian Federalists, whose commercial vision of America accepted social and economic inequalities as inevitable, the Jeffersonians wanted a predominantly agrarian republic based on widespread economic equality for white yeoman families to counter any threat posed by the privileged few to the people’s liberties. 2. Thus they favored territorial expansion as a means of adding enough land to maintain self-reliant farmers as the guardians of republican freedoms. B. Reform at Home 1. Jefferson was the first president to be inaugurated in Washington, D.C. He emphasized in his inaugural address the overwhelming commitment of Americans to the “republican form” of government and affirmed his own support of civil liberties as an American principle. 2. The cornerstone of Republican domestic policy was retrenchment, a return to frugal, simple federal establishment the Jeffersonians believed to be the original intent of the Constitution. 3. Jefferson’s secretary of treasury was Albert Gallatin, a native of Switzerland who emerged in the 1790s as the beset financial mind in the Republican party. He convinced Jefferson that the Bank of the United States was essential for financial stability and blocked efforts to dismantle it. Gallatin’s conservative fiscal policies shrank both the spending and taxes of the national government. The Republicans eliminated all internal taxes, including the tax on whiskey. 4. If the country were invaded, he would rely on the militia, citizen soldiers commanded by professional officers to be trained at the newly established (1802) military academy at West Point. 5. By the time Jefferson left office in 1809, Republicans held nearly all the appointive offices. 6. The Republicans repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801. Frustrated Federalists now turned to John Marshall, a staunch Federalist appointed chief justice of the United States by President John Adams in 1801, hoping that he would rule that Congress had acted unconstitutionally in removing the recently appointed judges.
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7. The issue came to a head in the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803), which centered on Secretary of State James Madison’s refusal to deliver a commission to William Marbury, one of Adams’s “midnight appointments” as a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. The Court ruled that the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 granting it the power to order the delivery of Marbury’s commission was unconstitutional because it conferred on the Court a power not specified in Article 3 of the constitution on cases of original jurisdiction. Marshall created the precedent of judicial review, the power of the Supreme Court to rule on the constitutionality of federal law. 8.
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hist 1301 chapter 9 - CHAPTER 9: THE TRIUMPH AND COLLAPSE...

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