CHAPTER 15: BATTLE CRIES AND FREEDOM SONGS
THE CIVL WAR 1861—1865
MOBILIZATION, NORTH AND SOUTH
The Confederacy lacked a national army and a navy.
The Union had a regular army of only 16,000 men, most of whom were stationed west of
the Mississippi River. Their major responsibility had been to intervene between white
settlers and Indians.
B. War Fever
The day after Major Robert Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, President Lincoln moved
to enlarge his small, scattered army by mobilizing state militias for 90 days. Four states—
Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee—refused the call and seceded from
the Union. About one-third of the officer corps of the regular army resigned their
commissions to join the Confederacy.
As war fever gripped North and South, volunteers on both sides rushed to join, quickly
filling the quotas of both armies. Most soldiers were motivated by patriotism, a desire to
defend their homes and loved ones, and a craving for glory and adventure.
By early spring of 1862, the Confederate government was compelled to order the first
general draft in American history. It required three years service for men between 18 and
35. The Confederate draft law allowed several occupational exemptions.
In March 1863, Congress passed the Enrollment Act, a draft law that, like the
Confederate draft, allowed for occupational exceptions. A provision that allowed a
draftee to hire a substitute aroused resentment among working-class northerners.
Only 8 percent of the Union’s soldiers were drafted, compared to 20 percent for the
C. The North’s Advantage in Resources
The resources of the North, including its population, industrial and agricultural capacity,
and transportation network, greatly exceeded those of the South.
The Confederacy compensated somewhat for its numerical disadvantage by requiring
long tours of duty, which meant that its forces tended to be more experienced than those
of the Union.
At the beginning of the war, the North controlled 90 percent of the nation’s industrial
capacity. The North had dozens of facilities for producing war material; the South had
only one munitions plant, the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond.
Thanks to the North’s abundance of resources, no soldier in any previous American army
had even been outfitted as well as the blue-uniformed Union trooper. The official color of
the Confederate uniform way gray.
The Confederate economy, and its treasury, depended heavily on cotton exports. But a
Union navel blockage and the ability of textile manufacturers in Europe to find new
sources of supply restricted this crucial source of revenue.
D. Leaders, Governments, and Strategies
Jefferson Davis and the South