hist 1301 chapter 15 notes

hist 1301 chapter 15 notes - CHAPTER 15: BATTLE CRIES AND...

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CHAPTER 15: BATTLE CRIES AND FREEDOM SONGS THE CIVL WAR 1861—1865 I. MOBILIZATION, NORTH AND SOUTH A. Introduction 1. The Confederacy lacked a national army and a navy. 2. The Union had a regular army of only 16,000 men, most of whom were stationed west of the Mississippi River. Their major responsibility had been to intervene between white settlers and Indians. B. War Fever 1. The day after Major Robert Anderson surrendered Fort Sumter, President Lincoln moved to enlarge his small, scattered army by mobilizing state militias for 90 days. Four states— Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee—refused the call and seceded from the Union. About one-third of the officer corps of the regular army resigned their commissions to join the Confederacy. 2. As war fever gripped North and South, volunteers on both sides rushed to join, quickly filling the quotas of both armies. Most soldiers were motivated by patriotism, a desire to defend their homes and loved ones, and a craving for glory and adventure. 3. By early spring of 1862, the Confederate government was compelled to order the first general draft in American history. It required three years service for men between 18 and 35. The Confederate draft law allowed several occupational exemptions. 4. In March 1863, Congress passed the Enrollment Act, a draft law that, like the Confederate draft, allowed for occupational exceptions. A provision that allowed a draftee to hire a substitute aroused resentment among working-class northerners. 5. Only 8 percent of the Union’s soldiers were drafted, compared to 20 percent for the Confederacy. C. The North’s Advantage in Resources 1. The resources of the North, including its population, industrial and agricultural capacity, and transportation network, greatly exceeded those of the South. 2. The Confederacy compensated somewhat for its numerical disadvantage by requiring long tours of duty, which meant that its forces tended to be more experienced than those of the Union. 3. At the beginning of the war, the North controlled 90 percent of the nation’s industrial capacity. The North had dozens of facilities for producing war material; the South had only one munitions plant, the Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond. 4. Thanks to the North’s abundance of resources, no soldier in any previous American army had even been outfitted as well as the blue-uniformed Union trooper. The official color of the Confederate uniform way gray. 5. The Confederate economy, and its treasury, depended heavily on cotton exports. But a Union navel blockage and the ability of textile manufacturers in Europe to find new sources of supply restricted this crucial source of revenue. D. Leaders, Governments, and Strategies 1. Jefferson Davis and the South
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a. The Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, had to build a government from scratch during a war. He fought in the Mexican War and used his successes to become a senator from Mississippi in 1847. He served as secretary of war under President Franklin Pierce
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hist 1301 chapter 15 notes - CHAPTER 15: BATTLE CRIES AND...

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