Hist 1301 Chapter 16 Notes

Hist 1301 Chapter - CHAPTER 16 RECONSTRUCTION 18651877 I WHITE SOUTHERNERS AND THE GHOSTS OF THE CONFEDERACY 1865 A The casualties of war in the

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CHAPTER 16: RECONSTRUCTION 1865—1877 I. WHITE SOUTHERNERS AND THE GHOSTS OF THE CONFEDERACY, 1865 A. The casualties of war in the South continued long after the hostilities ceased. These were hardly the only cases of starvation that stalked the defeated region in the months after the surrender. B. They came to view the war as the Lost Cause and interpreted it, not as a lesson in humility, but as an episode in the South’s journey to salvation. C. The statues of the Confederate common soldier erectly typically on the most important site in town, the courthouse square. II. MORE THAN FREEDOM: AFRICAN-AMERICAN ASPIRATIONS IN 1865 A. Introduction 1. To black southerners the Civil War was a war of liberation, not a Lost Cause. 2. Congress envisioned the Freemen’s Bureau as a multipurpose agency to provide social, educational, and economical services, advice, and protection to former slaves and destitute white southerners. B. Education 1. The greatest success of the Freemen’s Bureau was the education. 2. Support for black teachers came from black teachers, especially the African Methodist Episcopal (AME). 3. At the end of the Civil War, only about 10 percent of black southerners were literate, compared with more than 70 percent of white southerners. C. “Forty Acres and a Mule” 1. Before the war’s end, rumors circulated through black communities in the South that the government would provide each black family with 40 acres and a mule. These rumors were fueled by General William T. Sherman’s Field Order No. 15 in January 1865, which set aside a vast swath of abandoned land along the South Atlantic coast from the Charleston area to northern Florida for grants up to 40 acres. 2. In 1866, Congress passed the Southern Homestead Act , giving black people preferential access to public lands in five southern states. 3. The premise of sharecropping was relatively simple: the landlord furnished the sharecropper with a house, a plot of land to work, seed, some farm animals, and farm implements and advanced them credit at a store the landlord typically owned. In exchange, the sharecropper promised the landlord a share of the crop. D. Migration to Cities 1. Most rural black Southerners work as unskilled laborers. In both Atlanta and Nashville, black people comprised more than 75 percent of the unskilled force in 1870. E. Faith and Freedom 1. Black southerners saw emancipation in biblical terms as the beginning of an exodus from bondage to the Promised Land. III. FEDERAL RECONSTRUCTION, 1865—1870 A. Introduction
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1. Lincoln had proposed to readmit a seceding state if 10 percent of its prewar voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union and it prohibited slavery in a new state constitution; this was called the Ten Percent Plan.
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2009 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Powers during the Summer '08 term at Lone Star College.

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Hist 1301 Chapter - CHAPTER 16 RECONSTRUCTION 18651877 I WHITE SOUTHERNERS AND THE GHOSTS OF THE CONFEDERACY 1865 A The casualties of war in the

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