hist 1301 part of chapter 13 notes

hist 1301 part of chapter 13 notes - T H E M EX ICAN BORDER...

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THE MEXICAN BORDERLANDS A. The Peoples of the Southwest 1. B. The Americanization of Texas 1. C. The Push into California and the Southwest 1. California a. Mexican rule in California was always weak. The Sonoran desert and the resistance of the Yuman Indians in southeastern California cut off Mexico from any direct land contact with Alta California. b. For Californios , Californians of Spanish descent, Mexico was literally la otra banda , “the other shore.” c. The centerpiece of the Mexican program was the secularization of the missions, opening up the landholdings of the Catholic Church to private ownership and releasing the mission Indians from paternalistic bondage. Indians who remained became a cheap source of labor for the rancheros who carved up the mission lands into huge cattle ranches. Thus by the 1830s, California had entered into what is called the rancho era. d. What first attracted New England merchants to California were the seal fisheries off the California coast, a source of otter pelts highly prized in the China trade. e. About one in ten of the overland parties took a cutoff on the Oregon Trail near Fort Hall on the Snake River that led them across the desert to a passage across the Sierra Nevada. At the end of the journey, they dropped down into the fertile Sacramento River Valley. 2. New Mexico
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a. When Mexico liberalized the formerly restrictive trading policies of Spain, American merchants opened up the 900-mile-long Santa Fe Trail
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