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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: WORLDS APART I. NAT IVE AMER ICAN SOCIET IES BEFORE 1492 A. INTRODUCTION 1. Native groups called themselves “the original people” or “the true men”. They are mistakenly called “Indians” because Columbus believed when he travelled west that he reached the West Indies. 2. The first migrants travelled from Siberia (across the Bering Strait) then migrated to the rest of North America and downward to South America. B. PALEO-INDIANS AND THE ARCHAIC PERIOD 1. The earliest Americans, called Paleo-Indians , travelled in small bands and killed large game with tools such as spears. Around 9000 B.C. the climate began to change and the large mammals became extinct in North America. 2. Next came the Archaic period (8000 B.C. – 1500 B.C.) and Native Americans began living in larger communities. Men hunted and fished, while women gathered plants and took care of children. Communities traded with material goods, people, ideas, and religious practices with each other. C. THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1. Agriculture began around 3000 B.C. in Mexico, when Indians raised maize (also known as corn), which was the main crop in both North and South America. 2. Populations grew where there was agriculture because farming produced a secure food supply. Societies developed within broad regions, or culture areas , in which inhabitants of each area shared basic patterns of life. D. NONFARMING SOCIETIES 1. Indians of the North and West without farming because they depended on hunting of game and fish. They made tools and weapons from bone and ivory, clothing from animal skins, religious masks and poles from wood, and houses from whalebone and hides or blocks of sod or snow. E. MESOAMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS 1. Mesoamerica is the birthplace of agriculture in North America and many complex, literate cultures emergered. The Olmecs were one of earliest cultures and lived from 1200 to 400 B.C. 2. The Mayans (A.D. 150 to 900) of Yucatan and Guatemala created Mesoamerica’s most advanced writing, calendar, and mathematical systems that included the number zero. They had a great city called Teotihuacan. 3. After the fall of Teotihuacan, the Toltecs rose to power from 900 to 1100 A.D. and after their fall, the Aztecs took controlled. Their capital, Tenochtitlan, was one of the largest cities in the world at the time. They practiced human sacrifice. F. NORTH AMERICA’S DIVERSE CULTURES 1. Around 300 B.C., the Hohokams of southern Arizona developed ir rigation systems that allowed them to harvest twice a year. 2. The Ancestral Puebloans lived in multistory structures with dwellings that were difficult to climb to. The largest town, Pueblo Bonito, had a four-story- tall main structure with 800 rooms and lots of kivas, or ceremonial centers....
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2009 for the course HIST 1301 taught by Professor Brown during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Spring '08