hist 1302 chapter 18 notes

Hist 1302 chapter - CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY IMMIGRANTS AND CITIES 18701900 I NEW INDUSTRY A Inventing Technology The Electric Age 1 Technology played a

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CHAPTER 18: INDUSTRY, IMMIGRANTS, AND CITIES 1870—1900 I. NEW INDUSTRY A. Inventing Technology: The Electric Age 1. Technology played a major role in transforming factory work and increasing the scale of production. Steam engines and later, electricity, freed manufacturers from dependence on water power. Factories no longer had to be location by rivers. 2. For much of the nineteenth century, the United States was dependent on the industrial nations of Europe for technological innovation. By the late nineteenth century, the United States changed from a technology borrower to a technology innovator. 3. Thomas Edison’s invention of a practical light bulb and electric generating system transformed electricity into a new and versatile form of industrial energy. Edison’s research laboratory at Menlo Park, New Jersey, also established a model for corporate- sponsored research and development that would rapidly increase the pace of technological innovation. 4. Whoever could light the world cheaply and efficiently held the key to an enormous fortune. Ultimately, the prize fell not to Edison but to Elihu Thomson. Thomson purchased Edison’s General Electric Company in 1892 and established the country’s first corporate research and development division. B. The Corporation and Its Impact 1. A corporation is an association of individuals that is legally authorized to act as a fictional “person” and thus relieves its individual members of certain legal liabilities. 2. The corporation had two major advantages over other forms of business organization that made it attractive to investors. First, unlike a partnership, a corporation can outlive its founders. Second, a corporation’s officials and shareholders are not personally liable for its debts. 3. By the early twentieth century, control of the workplace was shifting to managers, and semiskilled and unskilled workers were replacing skilled artisans. 4. Vertical integration involved the consolidation of all functions related to a particular industry, from the extraction and transport of raw materials to manufacturing and finished-product distribution and sales. The meatpacking industry provides a good example of vertical integration. 5. Horizontal integration involved the merger of competitors in the same industry. John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company pioneered horizontal integration in the 1880s. James B. Duke gained control of most of the tobacco industry. Andrew Carnegie consolidated much of America’s steel industry within his Carnegie Steel Company (later U.S. Steel). C. The Changing Nature of Work 1. Low salaries and long hours a. The new workers shared little of the wealth generated by industrial expansion and enjoyed few of the gadgets and products generated by new manufacturing. Nor did the large corporations put profits into improved working conditions.
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b. Upton Sinclair wrote a novel, The Jungle (1906), a chronicle of the killing floors of meatpacking plants in Chicago. c.
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This note was uploaded on 01/05/2009 for the course HIST 1302 taught by Professor Powers during the Summer '08 term at Lone Star College.

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Hist 1302 chapter - CHAPTER 18 INDUSTRY IMMIGRANTS AND CITIES 18701900 I NEW INDUSTRY A Inventing Technology The Electric Age 1 Technology played a

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