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hist 1302 chapter 19 notes

hist 1302 chapter 19 notes - CHAPTER 19 TRANSFORMING THE...

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CHAPTER 19: TRANSFORMING THE WEST 1865—1890 I. SUBJUGATING NATIVE AMERICANS A. Tribes and Cultures 1. Introduction a. During summer fishing runs, the Tillamooks, Chinooks, and other tribes caught salmon that, after being dried in smokehouses, sustained them throughout the year. b. At the opposite environmental extreme, in the day and barren Great Basin of Utah and Nevada, Shoshones and Paiutes ate grasshoppers and other insects to supplement their diet of rabbits, mice, and other small animals. c. In the Southwest, the Pueblos dwelled in permanent towns of adobe buildings and practiced intensive agriculture. d. Because tribal welfare depended on maintaining complex irrigation systems, the Zunis, Hopis, and other Pueblos emphasized community solidarity rather than individual ambition. e. Navajos, Apaches, and other nomadic tribes in the region relied on sheepherding and hunting. f. The most numerous Indian groups lived on the Great Plains. The largest of these tribes were the Lakotas, or Sioux, who ranged from western Minnesota through the Dakotas; the Cheyennes and Arapahos, who controlled much of the central plains between the Platte and Arkansas rivers; and the Comanches, preeminent on the southern plains. g. Two animals dominated the lives of these people: the horse and the buffalo. 2. Clashing values a. White and Indian cultural values were incompatible. Disdaining Native Americans and their religion, white people condemned them as “savages” to be converted or exterminated. b. Ignoring the need for natural harmony, they followed their own culture’s goal of extracting wealth from the land for a market economy. B. Federal Indian Policy 1. The government had in the 1830s adopted the policy of separating whites and Indians. Eastern tribes were moved west of Missouri and resettled on land then scorned as “the Great American Desert,” unsuitable for white habitation and development. 2. White migration devastated the Indians, already competing among themselves for the limited resources of the Plains. 3. To promote white settlement, the federal government decided to relocate the tribes to separate and specific reserves. In exchange for accepting such restrictions, the government would provide the tribes with annual payments of livestock, clothing, and other materials. To implement this policy, the government negotiated treaties extinguishing Indian rights to millions of acres and ordered the army to keep Indians on their assigned reservations. C. Warfare and Dispossession 1. Most smaller tribes accepted the government’s conditions but larger tribes resisted.
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2. One notorious example of white aggression occurred in 1864, at Sand Creek, Colorado. John Chivington led a militia force to the Sand Creek camp of a band of Cheyennes under
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hist 1302 chapter 19 notes - CHAPTER 19 TRANSFORMING THE...

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