As shown well charge centers that tend to the depth

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Unformatted text preview: earest neighbors. The term is most d. In silicon, each atom must be bonded to four other Si atoms, and the resulting structure is oftentoused to describe specific bond angles in covalent similar the diamond structure described previously (see Figure 2.6–2b). ....................................................................................................................................... structures. bond energy The amount of energy required to move Covalent bonds are directional and are characterized by specific bond angles. The bond angles can be determined by the geometry of separation or vice versa. It is two atoms or ions to an infinite the structure distance. Shared electrons, or bond pairs, and lone electron pairs constitute mutually repulsive negativeequivalent to separate as much as possible. As shown well. charge centers that tend to the depth of the bond-energyin Figure 2.6–4a, the bond angle in a tetrahedral structure such as diamond is 109.5 , which places nearestbond-energy curve (bond-energy well) The curve that neighbor C atoms (and their associated shared electron pairs) as far apart as possible in describes the valency requirements. In contrast, when carbon is bonded space while satisfying the energy associated with a pair of atoms or to only three other atoms (one of whichthe distance between the twostructure is ions as a function of involves a double bond), the resulting atoms planar with a bond angle of about 120 , as shown in Figure 2.6–4b. The existence of or ions. specific bond angles in covalent molecules is important in understanding the properties of polymers. bond-force curve The curve that describes the v relationship between the total force between two atoms or ions as a Cfunction of the distance between the two atoms or ions. This C curve is equivalent to the derivative H 109.5° of the bond-energy curve. 120° C C O bond length The equilibrium separation distance between two atoms or ions. It can be estimated from C H eit...
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This note was uploaded on 02/25/2013 for the course PHYS 2202 taught by Professor Sowell during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Tech.

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