Fifth from a block position 1 height of center of

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Unformatted text preview: enter of mass Q Block position 2 Energy Force Height of "energy barrier" Fixed pivot point Height of center of mass in position 2 Position 1 (a) Position 2 (b) FIGURE 2.3–2 The concept of activation energy. (a) When a block is “pushed over,” the height of its center of gravity initially increases and then decreases to a final value less than its initial value. The difference between the maximum and initial heights represents the “energy barrier” to this process. (b) The more general concept of an energy barrier of height Q is illustrated schematically. In moving from position 1 to position 2, the overall energy of the system decreases, but energy in the amount Q must be “supplied” in order for the transition to occur. | v v pg029 [R] insulator. phase from a supersaturated solid solution. basal plane The top or bottom plane in G1 7-27060 / IRWIN / Schaffer pgm 1-14-98 plm 3-21-98 MP amorphous material A material that lacks the hexagonal crystals the basal plane is defin long-range order that is characteristic of a crystalline placed on the six corners of hexagons. It i solid. Amorphous materials are either rubbers or glasses. c axis. Chapter 2 29 anisotropic Having properties that vary withAtomic Scale Structures direction. basal slip Deformation that occurs on t anodizing A process kinetic factors are surface of rates is kinetics. In many cases, the by which the more importantathan the thermoof HCP crystals as a result of dislocation dynamic factors. For example, ordinary window glassoxidea by an component is converted into a hard is not thermodynamically stable structure. An investigation of the kinetics of the problem, however, shows that at room basis The number of atoms or ions on e electrochemical action. temperature the rate at which window glass moves toward the lowest-energy, or equiposition. librium, state is such that glass can exist in itsof materialsform which antiferromagnetic A class nonequilibrium in for thousands of years. This example illustrates the important concept that a reacti...
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