Unformatted text preview: cture that
occurs upon melting or freezing of a pure material. Figure 2.3–1 illustrates the relative
Electrical conduction in pure energies of the two thermodynamic of two phasessolid, as a functiontwo-phase
relative amounts states, liquid and present in a of temperature.
Si, Ge, and GaAs.
mixture in terms melting compositions of the alloy a lower
At temperatures greater than the of the temperature, the liquid represents and the
energy statephases solid. It is the thermodynamically favored state. As the temperature
reaction is which there are zerois decreased below thepresent.
melting temperature, the solid becomes the favored state and there
is a thermodynamic driving force for solidiﬁcation, which includes bond rearrangement,
line compound A compound whose composition is
independentthat many inﬂuence of changes in in materials engineering
process in which ions of light of the material. We will examining the of the important reactions system variables on the
can be understood by
and nitrogen are made to impinge
relative energies of different atomicThe number of atoms centered on a
Thermodynamics provides information about which processes may occur; however, it
orkpiece at a high velocity. The
crystallographic direction per unit length.
gives no information about the rate of the process. The science that deals with reaction penetration of the ions.
f primary bond FIGURE 2.3–1
ctropositive atoms that of the rela- a
A comparison display
tive energies two thertheir electronegativityofvalues
modynamic states, liquid liquid crystal An anisotropic ﬂuid, usually a melt or
solution characterized by molecular alignment.
liquid metal embrittlement Solid degradation mechanism
in which a liquid metal preferentially attacks the grain
boundaries in a solid.
liquidus The temperature at which a liquid begins to
freeze during equilibrium cooling conditions.
long-range order Existence of a regular repeating
arrangement of atoms, ions, or molecule...
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