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Inpoint strain istwo atoms effective bond fact one of

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Unformatted text preview: ith positionthewire is an to the bond curve represents the of the of energy between when the only The pulled or ions a die to reduce of diameter. then experience a forces acting onor ions.throughare the atomic forces itsattraction and repulsion. If the atoms bond-force curve yp The strain at which application other external forces or sources of energy act on the systemthat example, thedeformation yield point strain The curve (for describes the of external loads, an electromagnetic field, or temperature changes), quantities such as between The yield becomes permanent. be total force between key issues in well combination of time-bond length andrelationship energy may thealtered. Inpoint strain istwo atoms effective bond fact, one of the or ions toin a able to understandsteel, which exhibit the two asbemetals such as and model the interaction “sharp” function of the distance between a between defined t deformation. Such materials engineering is atoms or ions. This curve plastic deformation. derivative external transition scale elastic t prominently in polymers. variables and atomic fromstructures. to is equivalent to the Consider the response bond-energy curve. external load. Figure 2.4–2a showed of a system an of the stress of atoms tostress at which deformation a combination of spring bond-force curve is approximatelyThe near the equilibrium position. The slope yield ys that the linear The in a tensile to displace atoms from their of the curve, Fbond length x , at x0 is permanentequilibrium separation distance becomes a measure of the force requiredtest. equilibrium positions. Mathematically, near x 0ions. It can be estimated fromto the displacement x i proportional between two atoms orThe elastic propertys of solids that constant between shear Young’s modulus the force: either the the inherent stiffness of the material.theis also ich is a measure of the describes bond-energy curve (the point where It energy F minimum)aor the bond-force curve (the point where F xis a or E aterial. the slope of the stress-strain curve in the elastic (2.5–1) region. x the total force is zero). whic...
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