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Unformatted text preview: f electrons direction per unit length.
degree of polymerization The num
within the ﬁlledwithin the theof an energy
inner shells ions.
ion in refractive indexhardens due to penetration ofpermissibleatom. levels in an atom.
liquid crystal to form a polymer; usually a melt or weig
An anisotropic ﬂuid, the molecular
coring type of primary bondsolute distribution of occurs in ionic bonds
Variation in the involving process that a single
electron transfer A
ionic bond A
solution characterized by molecular alignment.
Chapter 2 Atomic Scale
divided by the molecular weight of th
ion Term used by ceramists due electropositive an electropositive element gives Structures electron
phase and to nonequilibrium solidiﬁcation. Coring occurs
in which atoms that display a
liquid metal embrittlement A degradation mechanism
y martensitic, or athermal,
to electronegativity values
because the composition a the solid and the liquid which a liquiddegrees of freedom The grain
signiﬁcant difference in theirbecome ofcation and this electron isin are added to anmetal preferentially attacks thenumber of
2.4.1 Ionic Bonding
(usually notNthe 1.7). type electronegative element that becomes an anion. in a solid.
variables necessary to specify equilibr
same a speciﬁc temperature.
The most common at of bond in a compound containing both electropositive and
level within the band gap of a elements is the ionic bond. This bondThe relative tendencyfrom an element
electronegativity displaceelectronegative fatigue
ionic (atomic) polarization The degradation mechanism in whichthe
dendrite A treelike structure in a s
A temporary involves electron transfer of
electropositive atom to the electronegative atom. A high of an
between the atoms favors The temperature at which a liquid begins to
d with the extra electrons
to gain, or attract, an electron.
ment of positive and negative ions in the presence ENsimultaneously
formed cooling conditions.
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