Why is diamond able to cut urity level within the

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Unformatted text preview: sformations in steels are athermal. through any other material? Why are steels able to (APF) ted with the electron holes atomic packing factor resist considerable impact loading (rapid hammerlike The fraction of space blows) while ceramics shatter under relatively small impact loads? Why are oxide and ration of a Group II or III filled by spherical atoms. polymer glasses transparent while other materials are opaque? Why do some materials emiconductor. expand more scale structure atomic than others when heated? structure of a material on The We often take for granted the intrinsic properties of engineering materials. If we are A mechanism by which the the sizestructureof an atom (i.e., on the scale of about 10 8it becomes scale of materials to enhance their properties, however, to alter the1 0 n some systems. It occurs when to 10 to develop a thorough understanding of why materials behave the way they do. m). necessary rosion process has a high Although the properties of materials depend on all levels of structure, many properties austenite The face-centered cubic (FCC) form of iron. are determined by the atomic scale structure alone. By atomic scale structure we mean: he whole process is slowed (1) The FCC phasepresent, (2) the types of bonding between the atoms, and (3) the the types of atoms in iron alloys is also referred to as way the atoms are packed together. austenite. In this chapter we will briefly review the structure of the atom and some basic ocess by which two parts are bainite A two-phase microstructure consisting the principles of thermodynamics and kinetics. We will then describe of characteristics of is process is used to join the ferrite types of bonds between atoms and the way in whichaustenitic of atoms are various and cementite. Bainite forms when an small groups s, metals, and ceramics and spatially arranged. We will also temperature below the pearlite scale structure steel is quenched to a explore the relationships between atomic es. and engineering properties and attempt to answer the questions we have pose...
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