And engineering properties and attempt to answer the

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Unformatted text preview: d above. region but above the martensite start Ms temperature. omposites containing band gap The forbidden range of electron energy egate form such as sand and levels located between the top of the valence band and 2.2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE the bottom of the conduction band in a semiconductor or All matter is composed of atoms. The atoms, in turn, consist of electrons, protons, and that precipitates a second insulator. neutrons. The properties of an atom are determined by many factors including: (1) the d solid solution. atomic number Z that correspondsor the number of electrons or protons in a neutral atom, basal plane The top to bottom plane in a crystal. In material that lacks the (2) the mass of the atom, (3) the spatial distribution of the electrons in orbits around the hexagonal crystals the basal plane is defined by the atoms nucleus, (4) the energy of the electrons in the atom, and (5) the ease of adding or removing aracteristic of a crystalline oneplaced on the six corners ofto create a charged ion. The latter three factors, or more electrons from the atom hexagons. It is normal to the s are either rubbers or glasses. involving electrons, can be influenced by external conditions such as mechanical forces, c axis. erties that vary with direction. electromagnetic fields, and temperature. Since we are interested in the influence of exactly basal slip Deformation that the bulk of the basal plane these variables on the properties of solids, occurs on our discussion will focus on the which the surface of a of HCP of electrons a atoms. of dislocation of electron characteristicscrystals as in result An understanding motion. behavior, however, to a hard oxide by an requires some understanding of quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics theory, or basis The number of atoms or by physicists in lattice QMT, is a mathematical framework developedions on each the early part of the 20th position. century to describe the interaction of electrons, protons, and neutrons in atoms and ass of materials in which molecules. bipolar junction transistor A solid-state of equal strength poi...
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