Unformatted text preview: tempt to slip past one another in response to the applied force, strong repulsive forces develop
and lead to cracking. (c) In contrast, in a metal the electron cloud shields the positively charged atomic cores from
each other so that the repulsive forces do not develop. segment, so that up to about 600% extension the polymer
recovers substantially completely. Only polymers can be
| v v pg037 [R] to become a cation and this electr
of the bond-energy curve.
transformation in nonmetallic materials.
electronegative element t h Ter
coefﬁcient of thermal expansionthat becom
The equilibrium separation distance
G1 bond length Schaffer
7-27060 / IRWIN /
pgm 1-14-98 plm 3-21-98 MP
donor level Impurity level within the band gap of a through electronegativity tTheTrelative st
, which te
the equation t h
between two atoms or ions. It can be estimated from
coefﬁcient gain, or attract, an electron.
semiconductor associated with the extra electrons
to of thermal expansion is the cons
either the bond-energy curve (the point where the energy
relates thermal strain to changes in tempera
introduced the bond-force curve (the point where VI
electronic polarization The tem
is a minimum) orby the incorporation of a Group V orStructures
Chapter 2 Atomic Scale
element into a Group IV semiconductor.
coherent interface of positive and separatin
An interface negative
the total force is zero).
where there is a one-to-one match of lattice
drift velocity 1.9 The average velocity with which an
presence of an electric ﬁeld.
Bragg’s law N The deﬁningUsing the table in Appendix A, this corresponds to a
d. For CdTe, E
0.2. equation of X-ray
across the boundary.
electrical charge carrier moves through a solid in
2d of valence electrons in CdTe is
diffraction,is n 1% numberTherefore, the bonding in CdTe is2either metallic we covalent.
electrostatic painting A spray-p
Since the average
6 2 4,
cold working the paint deformation ofthe s
response is likely toof covalent. electric ﬁeld. in which a
to an external two materials
which Plastic particles...
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