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varied by control of the microstructure. In contrast, both the modulus and strength of plm QC2 rps MP1 579 v v strain hardening Hardening that occurs as a result of
- or ferrimagnetic materials withcan be varied considerably.
deforming a metal. During strain hardening, dislocations
are generated and the high dislocation density makes it
technique for making ceramics in
difﬁcult for other dislocations to move.
s are reacted with water to make a
A schematic illustration of
into a ﬁber when the reaction
striations Parallel ridges that are seen on the surfacesthe idealized structure of
rtain viscosity. The pure oxide is
of many fatigue failures at high magniﬁcations. In some concrete containing large
gravel stones and small
S each fatigue
ntly driving off the remaining
cases one striation forms forand (fine aggregate) cycle.
sand particles in a matrix
Gravel (coarse aggregate)
stress corrosion cracking (SCC) A type of corrosionof cement. The wide partiss used to join metals by sandthat results from the application of a tensile stress in cle size distribution aids in
achieving a higher volume
elting-point alloy (less than 450 C)
conjunction with a speciﬁc material-electrolyte pair.
fraction of the reinforcing
ting to form a good bond.
stress intensity parameter K The parameter that
The temperature at which a liquid
characterizes the stresses and strains at a given location
ng equilibrium cooling conditions.
ahead of a crack. It is a valid parameter for situations in
ion species that is dissolved in a
which plastic deformation ahead of the crack tip is
nonexistent or very limited.
ent A high-temperature heat
stress relaxation Reduction in stress that occurs when
take into solution the soluble
a component is subjected to a constant value of strain.
| Typically polymersMenu metals at relatively high
| e-Text Main and | Textbook Table of Contents
temperatures exhibit stress relaxation.
ecies for a solute. pg580 [V] G2 7-27060 / IRWIN / Schaffer 580 Part III iq 12.01.98 plm QC2 rps MP1 Properties FIGURE 14.2–2 A picture of the AV-88 Harrier aircraft, in which composites account for 28% of structural weight.
(Source: Journal of Metals 43, no. 12 (December 1991), p. 16, a publication of the Minerals, Metals & Materials
Society, Warrendale, PA.)
• Outboard (graphite)
• Inboard (graphite/fiberglass) FIGURE 14.2–3
List of composite parts in
the main structure of the
Boeing 757-200 aircraft.
(Source: Boeing Commercial
Airplane Company.) Flap support fairings
• Fwd segment (graphite/Kevlar
+ non-woven Kevlar mat)
• Aft segment (graphite/fiberglass) Rudder
(graphite) Tip fairings
(fiberglass) Fixed trailing edge
+ non-woven Kevlar mat)
(graphite) Ailerons (graphite)
Engine strut fairings
(graphite) Environmental control
system ducts (Kevlar) Fixed trailing edge panels
(graphite/Kevlar + non-woven
Kevlar mat) Spoilers
(graphite) Nose landing
(graphite) Fixed trailing edge panels
+ non-woven Kevlar mat) Wing leading edge lower panels
(Kevlar/fiberglass) Wing-to-body fairings
and (graphite/Kevlar +
• Body main landing gear doors (graphite)
non-woven Kevlar mat)
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