Unformatted text preview: whiskers, or ﬁbers in a matrix that formation of a galvanic piecesby
1⁄2, that together determine
provides them with lateral an electric ﬁeld. in occur naturally. Examples include
placingpresence of support. Many composites electrical contact
another, more anodic metal
wood, which essentially consists of cellulose ﬁbers in a matrix of hemicellulose and lignin;
ortant characteristics of
with the metal composites of soft
and bones, which areto be protected. protein collagen and hard minerals called
apatites. However, the majorityequation that relates the with unique properties
Schmid’s law The of advanced composite materials orientation
are synthetic. These are the focus of discussion in this chapter.
n between an electron and
of a crystal and the normal stress to the shear stress at
f both charge carriers.
which plastic deformation occurs.
ome of the stored energy
Textbook Table of vacancy
Schottky e-Text Main Small |cation and anionContents
| defect Menu
clusters that are formed in ionic solids. The cation : anion
ratio in these clusters is adjusted to maintain
olving the nucleation and
ns in a deformed material.
screw dislocation A dislocation that may be formed by
The temperature at
making a cut in a crystal and displacing the top half of
within some speciﬁed
the cut region relative to the bottom half in a direction
parallel to the cut. The Burgers vector of a screw
ure of the reactivity of a
dislocation is parallel to the dislocation line.
ing the severity of some divided by the area of the plane in are annihilated. force divided by the instantaneous
boundary The phase boundary that separates
than they stress solvusThe
is bystresses are responsible area normalsingle-phase solidforce. from two-phase solid regions.
to the applied regions
A chemical substance (element or
7-27060 / IRWIN
igh enough to the G1 component / Schaffer
tions. in which [R]
speciﬁc heat Heat capacity per unit
twin A portion of a the composition of anmass.
compound) used to specify crystal in which all of the atoms
omentarily different of
The local arrangement
speciﬁc modulus compared with atoms in
are in mirror-image positions Elastic modulus divided by the
composites Materials formed by combining two or
s or ions around a centrally located
at are unable
the bulk of density of the material.
ystal deﬁned by four more basic materials instrength one material, called the divided by
Ultimate tensile 14 Composite Materials
twist phase, is
A loads. with cubic symmetry in boundary in A boundary that is composed of a
the form of ﬁbers, sheets, or
the density of the material.
grid materials have been developed in response on the need
of screw dislocations
the same man-made
ns are locatedof all eight corner embedded in another of like signcalled the for plane.
spheroidite A material, microstr...
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