hist 1302 chapter 21 notes

hist 1302 chapter 21 notes - CHAPTER 21 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA...

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CHAPTER 21: THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1900—1917 I. THE FERMENT OF REFORM A. The Context of Reform: Industrial and Urban Tension 1. The origins of progressivism lay in the crises of the new urban-industrial order that emerged in the late nineteenth century. 2. Big business, which had disrupted traditional economic relationships in the late nineteenth century, suddenly became bigger in a series of mergers between 1897 and 1903, resulting in huge new business combinations. The formation in 1901 if the United States Steel Corporation, the world’s largest firm, symbolized this development. 3. Working conditions were difficult and often dangerous. Most workers still toiled nine to ten hours a day; steelworkers and textile employees usually worked 12-hour shifts. Wages were minimal. 4. Family survival often required women and children to work, often in the lowest paid, most exploited positions. 5. Crowding into urban slums, immigrants overwhelmed municipal sanitation, education, and fire protection services. B. Church and Campus 1. Reform-minded Protestant ministers were especially influential, creating the Social Gospel movement , which sought to introduce religious ethics into industrial relations and appealed to churches to meet their social responsibilities. 2. Washington Gladden, a Congregational minister in Columbus, Ohio was one of the earliest Social Gospelers. 3. In Walter Rauschenbusch’s book Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), he argued that Christians should support social reform to alleviate poverty, slums, and labor exploitation. 4. Charles Sheldon, a Kansas minister, whose book In His Steps sold 23 million copies and called on Americans to act in their daily lives as they believed Jesus Christ would in the same circumstances. 5. The Social Gospel movement flowered mainly among Episcopalians, Congregationalists, and Methodists. It climaxed in 1908 in the formation of the Federal Council of Churches of Christ in American. The council adopted a program that endorsed welfare and regulatory legislation to achieve social justice. 6. In Applied Sociology (1906), Lester Ward called for social progress through rational planning and government intervention rather than through unrestrained and unpredictable competition. C. Muckrakers 1. Journalists also spread reform ideas by developing a new form of investigative reporting known as muckraking . Technological innovations that sharply reduced production costs had recently made possible the mass circulation of magazines, and editors competed to attract and expanding urban readership. 2. Lincoln Steffens detailed the corrupt links between respectable businessmen and crooked urban politicians in a series of articles called “The Shame of the Cities.” Ira Tarbell
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revealed John D. Rockefeller’s sordid construction of Standard Oil. The Octopus (1901), by Frank Norris, dramatized the Southern Pacific Railroad’s stranglehold on California’s famers, and The Jungle
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hist 1302 chapter 21 notes - CHAPTER 21 THE PROGRESSIVE ERA...

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