hist 1302 chapter 29 notes

hist 1302 chapter 29 notes - CHAPTER 29 SHAKEN TO THE ROOTS...

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CHAPTER 29: SHAKEN TO THE ROOTS 1965—1980 I. THE END OF CONSENSUS A. Introduction 1. In 1965, Pleiku was the site of a South Vietnamese army headquarters and American military base. At 2:00 a.m. on February 7, Viet Cong attacked the U.S. base, killing eight Americans and wounding a hundred. 2. President Johnson concurred, and navy bombers roared off aircraft carriers in Operation FLAMING DART. A month later, Johnson ordered a full-scale air offensive code-named ROLLING THUNDER. B. Deeper into Vietnam 1. Lyndon Johnson faced limited options in Vietnam. Advisers persuaded him that controlled military escalation—a middle course between withdrawal and all-out war— could secure Vietnam. 2. Because an air campaign required ground troops to protect the bases in South Vietnam, U.S. Marines landed on March 8. Over the next four months, General Westmoreland wore away Johnson’s desire to contain American involvement. On July 28, he finally gave Westmoreland doubled draft calls and an increase in U.S. combat troops from 75,000 to 275,000 by 1966. 3. At the end of 1967, American forces in South Vietnam totaled 485,000; they reached their maximum of 543,000 in August 1969. 4. The U.S. strategy on the ground was search and destroy. The approach made sense when the opposition consisted of North Vietnamese troops and large Viet Cong units. It worked well in the sparsely populated Ia Drang Valley, where the First Air Cavalry chewed up North Vietnamese regulars in November 1965. 5. Pilots dropped a vast tonnage of bombs on Ho Chi Minh Trail, a network of supply routes from North Vietnam to South Vietnam through the mountains of neighboring Laos. C. Voices of Dissent 1. Introduction a. The first national antiwar march took place in Washington on April 17, 1965. Twenty- five thousand people picketed the White House, assembling at the Washington Monument for speeches by Senator Ernest Gruening of Alaska (one of the two dissenting votes on the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution) and African-American leaders, and walked up the Mall to the Capital. b. One group of opponents consisted of “realists” who argued that the war was a mistake. Respected figures like the Cold War strategist George Kennan joined in the dissent. Senator J. William Fulbright held well-publicized hearings in 1966 and 1967, at which respectable critics of the war could state their case to a national audience, and published The Arrogance of Power (1967), a book arguing that even the United States needed to recognize limits on its vast political and military power. 2. From Protest to Confrontation a. Religious groups such as the American Friends Service Committee tried to dispense medical and humanitarian aid even-handedly in both North Vietnam and South Vietnam.
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b. Johnson and his associates ridiculed the dissenters. Much of the anger was directed at the military draft administered by the Selective Service System . In theory, the Selective Service picked the young men who could best serve the nation as soldiers and deferred
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hist 1302 chapter 29 notes - CHAPTER 29 SHAKEN TO THE ROOTS...

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