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Unformatted text preview: n browse intensity (%)
ratio(g/m Xe /Xc)], and2 SE of the log response ratio. Positive log response ratio values indic
Willow CAG (g/m )
with partial wolf exclusion; negative values indicate that the parameter was greater in th
Willow browse removed (g/m2)
0.05. Calf:cow ratio, wolf kill rates, total number of1.05 ki
boldface arediversity at P
Songbirdnet browse production
series; thus, the log response ratio is the average of (X0/.93 over all i, where i 1 0.008, a
e X c)
Hebblewhite et al.1.8
CAG is an abbreviation for current annual growth.
10 Indirect interactions Wolves Elk Willows Elk Indirect
(+) Willows A trophic cascade describes the direct negative effect
of an apex predator on its prey, and the indirect positive
effect of the apex predator on basal prey.
Hebblewhite et al. 2005 Indirect interactions
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