Biology 423 Winter 2013 Lecture 07

Willows h reduction in wolf p related to higher pr

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Unformatted text preview: 42 MARK HEBBLEWHITE ET AL. The effect of elk on beavers is likely to be which: Elk survival diffe in herbivory intensi (Table 1). Willows h reduction in wolf p related to higher pr • Direct (Hobbs et al. winter positive aspen patches (Wall • Indirect positive # Beaver effects. Although no lodges • Directinnegative bling aspen sucke • Indirect negative (Table 1) indicated cessfully regenerati other factors, such (White et al. 2003) 2001, preliminary as ing 2003 in the hig Elk density (# / km2) tation of a time lag FIG. 4. Number of active beaver lodges within the low- recruitment had incr Hebblewhite al. to wolf treatment area’s dominant wetlands, the Vermillion 1999 (Tableet1) 2005 9 Indirect interactions Wolves Indirect (+) Indirect (-) Beavers Elk Indirect (+) Elk Beavers Direct (+) Direct (+) Willows Willows A trophic cascade describes the direct negative effect of an apex predator on its prey, and the indirect positive effect of the apex predator on basal prey. Hebblewhite et al. 2005 Biology 356: Lecture #07 Homework #2 Due Wednesday, February 27th Sections meet at Union Bay Natural Area...
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