20century_and_modernism - ARCH 1302 Architectural History 2 20th Century Design and the Modernist Movement What is Modern Architecture l l Some say

20century_and_modernism - ARCH 1302 Architectural History 2...

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ARCH 1302 Architectural History 2 20th Century Design and the Modernist Movement
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What is Modern Architecture? l Some say reductivist, stripped (no meaning) l Founders intended buildings to TEACH ¡ What can be seen ¡ What can’t be seen l This is in large part a reaction to what was happening before this period
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Modern Architecture l World War 1, architects believed European culture had failed l Must be transformed – architecture will do it l Power of rational thought, economy, functionality l These could be produced using mechanization l Revered expression of building materials and processes of assembly
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Modern Architecture l Conceived during time of tremendous upheaval in Western culture ¡ Wars ¡ Developments in art and science - technology, changed our views about time and space ¡ Designers sought to come to terms with new ways of seeing, analyzing, understanding l Practically thinking – the war left us in need of housing ¡ The modernists tried to say that their style was more cost-efficient, but it was not very livable
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Adolf Loos l Austrian l Against ornamentation on buildings ¡ Sign of primitive culture, infancy l Against Art Nouveau l Writings extremely influential
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Adolf Loos, Ornament and Crime , 1908 l “Children are amoral, and so, by our standards, are Papuans. If a Papuan slaughters an enemy and eats him, that doesn’t make him a criminal. But if a modern man kills someone and eats him, he must be either a criminal or degenerate. The Papuans tattoo themselves, decorate their boats, their oars, everything they can get their hands on. But a modern man who tattoos himself is either a criminal or a degenerate. Why, there are prisons where eighty percent of the convicts are tattooed, and tattooed men who are not in prison are either latent criminals or degenerate aristocrats. When a tattooed man dies at liberty, it simply means that he hasn’t had time to commit his crime…I have therefore evolved the following maxim, and pronounce it to the world: the evolution of culture marches with the elimination of ornament from useful objects.”
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Adolf Loos interior
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Modern Masters l Frank Lloyd Wright l Le Corbusier l Ludwig Mies van der Rohe l (Walter Gropius) – education l All influenced by: ¡ Earlier architects ¡ Use of new materials ¡ Other artistic movements
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Twentieth Century Architects l Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959) ¡ Considered America’s greatest architect (AIA) ¡ Designed over 1,000 buildings ¡ Wrote 12 books ¡ Human needs go beyond the basics: comfort and convenience – the spirit and body must be nurtured ¡ Designed from inside out ¡ Popularized open plan ¡ Designed geometric furniture (uncomfortable and for specific interiors)
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Frank Lloyd Wright “Having a Good start, not only do I fully intend to be the greatest architect who has yet lived, but fully intend to be the greatest architect who will ever live.
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