ARCH 1302 Architectural History 2 20th Century Design and the Modernist Movement
What is Modern Architecture? l Some say reductivist, stripped (no meaning) l Founders intended buildings to TEACH ¡ What can be seen ¡ What can’t be seen l This is in large part a reaction to what was happening before this period
Modern Architecture l World War 1, architects believed European culture had failed l Must be transformed – architecture will do it l Power of rational thought, economy, functionality l These could be produced using mechanization l Revered expression of building materials and processes of assembly
Modern Architecture l Conceived during time of tremendous upheaval in Western culture ¡ Wars ¡ Developments in art and science - technology, changed our views about time and space ¡ Designers sought to come to terms with new ways of seeing, analyzing, understanding l Practically thinking – the war left us in need of housing ¡ The modernists tried to say that their style was more cost-efficient, but it was not very livable
Adolf Loos l Austrian l Against ornamentation on buildings ¡ Sign of primitive culture, infancy l Against Art Nouveau l Writings extremely influential
Adolf Loos, Ornament and Crime , 1908 l “Children are amoral, and so, by our standards, are Papuans. If a Papuan slaughters an enemy and eats him, that doesn’t make him a criminal. But if a modern man kills someone and eats him, he must be either a criminal or degenerate. The Papuans tattoo themselves, decorate their boats, their oars, everything they can get their hands on. But a modern man who tattoos himself is either a criminal or a degenerate. Why, there are prisons where eighty percent of the convicts are tattooed, and tattooed men who are not in prison are either latent criminals or degenerate aristocrats. When a tattooed man dies at liberty, it simply means that he hasn’t had time to commit his crime…I have therefore evolved the following maxim, and pronounce it to the world: the evolution of culture marches with the elimination of ornament from useful objects.”
Adolf Loos interior
Modern Masters l Frank Lloyd Wright l Le Corbusier l Ludwig Mies van der Rohe l (Walter Gropius) – education l All influenced by: ¡ Earlier architects ¡ Use of new materials ¡ Other artistic movements
Twentieth Century Architects l Frank Lloyd Wright (1869-1959) ¡ Considered America’s greatest architect (AIA) ¡ Designed over 1,000 buildings ¡ Wrote 12 books ¡ Human needs go beyond the basics: comfort and convenience – the spirit and body must be nurtured ¡ Designed from inside out ¡ Popularized open plan ¡ Designed geometric furniture (uncomfortable and for specific interiors)
Frank Lloyd Wright “Having a Good start, not only do I fully intend to be the greatest architect who has yet lived, but fully intend to be the greatest architect who will ever live.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 83 pages?
- Fall '12
- Modern Architecture, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Mies van der Rohe, Twentieth Century Furniture, Century Furniture Designers, Twentieth Century Architects