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# L1-14 - PHY 212 Paul Souder Start of course Electricity and...

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PHY 212 Paul Souder

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Start of course: Electricity and Magnetism Electricity : - charges, fields, potentials - electrical circuits Magnetism: - magnetic field and force - induction devices Combined theory: - Maxwell’s equations - E&M light
Chapter 21 – Electric Charges and Forces Goals: Understand manifestations of Electric Charge Learn about Insulators and Conductors Be able to use the force between charges: Coulomb’s Law Get introduced to The Electric Field

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What happens? 1) Attraction 2) Repulsion 3) Nothing 4) I have no idea Clicker Tryout
Basic lessons about charges: Uncharged objects show no force Similar charges repel Opposite charges attract Force decreases with increasing distance away Charges exert force without touching! Only 3 examples in nature: Gravity, Charge, and Magnets

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Bipolar Rod Demo Uncharged rod Bipolar Rod after rubbing
Basic Properties of Electric Charges Charge comes in two types, arbitrarily called “positive” and “negative” . Benjamin Franklin and others Ordinary matter is “full of charge” (electrons and protons), but has nearly the same amount of positive and negative charge – it is nearly “neutral” (having no net charge )

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Atoms and Ions : Neutral Atom – equal numbers of electrons and protons Positive and negative ions – subtracting or adding electrons Charged rods involve ions
Electrons, Protons and Neutrons Basic ingredients of matter: electrons q e = - 1.6 × 10 -19 Coulombs ( more later ) protons q P = + 1.6 × 10 -19 Coulombs neutrons q N = 0 |q e | = |q P | to one part in 10 21 - or else galaxies blow up! Sign of q e is just a convention - a bit unfortunate for some later formulas |Charge is conserved: the net sum of charge in any closed system is constant

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Attract Coke Can by Polarization
Insulators: The electrons are bound to the atoms. The electrons cannot move. Conductors: The electrons are free to move within a conductor. In an isolated atom the electrons are bound to a nucleus.

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L1-14 - PHY 212 Paul Souder Start of course Electricity and...

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