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Lecture 9_Energetics_iClicker

Lecture 9_Energetics_iClicker - Lecture#9 Energe.cs Reading...

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Lecture’#9:’ Energe.cs’ Reading: Chapter 9, pp. 163-169 Lecture outline: Cellular respira<on Enzyme inhibitors – recap Redox reac<ons Electron transport chain Glycolysis
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Enzyme’inhibitors’ Compe. .ve : binds to substrate binding site Non-compe. .ve : binds to the enzyme at a site dis<nct from the substrate binding site Uncompe. .ve : binds to the E ± S complex Type of inhibi<on can be determined by determining enzyme kine<cs as a func<on of inhibitor concentra<on
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Allosteric’efectors’ Allosteric’inhibitors : bind to one site or subunit in a protein complex or enzyme complex, inhibit ac<vity of other subunits Allosteric’ac.vators : bind to one site or subunit in a protein complex or enzyme complex, enhance ac<vity of other subunits
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Coopera.vity’ is a form of allosteric regula<on that can amplify enzyme ac<vity In coopera<vity, binding by a substrate to one ac<ve site stabilizes favorable conforma<onal changes at all other subunits
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Overview:’Life’Is’Work’ Living cells require energy from outside sources Some animals, such as the giant panda, obtain energy by ea<ng plants, and some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants
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Light’ energy ECOSYSTEM Photosynthesis’ ’in’chloroplasts CO 2 ’+’H 2 O Cellular’respira.on’ in’mitochondria Organic’ molecules +’O 2 ATP’powers’most’cellular’work Heat’ energy ATP Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis generates O 2 and organic molecules, which are used in cellular respira<on Cells use chemical energy stored in organic molecules to regenerate ATP, which powers work
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Catabolic’Pathways’and’Produc.on’of’ATP’ The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic Fermenta.on’ is a par<al degrada<on of sugars that occurs without O 2 Aerobic’respira.on’ consumes organic molecules and O 2 and yields ATP Anaerobic’respira.on’ is similar to aerobic respira<on but consumes compounds other than O 2
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Redox’Reac.ons:’Oxida.on’and’ Reduc.on’ The transfer of electrons during chemical reac<ons releases energy stored in organic molecules This released energy is ul<mately used to synthesize ATP
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The Principle of Redox Chemical reac<ons that transfer electrons between reactants are called oxida<on-reduc<on
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