SOC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide .pdf - Introduction to Sociology...

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Introduction to Sociology STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 2 Types of deviance What is deviant behavior? nonconformity/violation of a set of cultural norms Informal Deviance Minor transgression of norms Ex: picking one’s nose, belching loudly, or standing unnecessarily close to another person Violation of social norms Formal Deviance/Crime Violation of norms that have been codified into “law” Violation of formally enacted laws Ex: robbery, theft, rape, murder, assault Crime Special kind of deviant behavior They violate criminal law They are punishable with fines, jail terms, or other sanctions Sociological theories of deviance Deviance is inevitable and performs useful functions: Can bring people together Force innovation and change functionalism-Durkheim Collective conscience: Common set of norms and beliefs about how the world works Binds people together, encourages conformity Defines what is considered deviant and how it is punished. Anomie: sense of normlessness or despair that arises when social norms no longer strongly guide individual behavior & social life is no longer predictable Defining deviance can re-establish collective conscience, clarifying moral boundaries. Deviance can also push / change those boundaries THEORIES OF DEVIANCE: (6) 1. Biological/Psychological Biological theories of deviance see crime and deviant behavior as a form of illness caused by pathological factors specific to certain types of individuals. They assume that
some people are "born criminals" — they're biologically different from non-criminals. The underlying logic is that these individuals have a mental and physical inferiority which causes an inability to learn and follow rules. This in turn leads to criminal behavior. 2. Strain Theory (Robert Merton) 3. Differential Association Theory Deviant behavior is learned through social interaction with people associated with crime 4 . Social Disorganization Theory “Broken Windows Theory” Deviance is caused by broad social factors-disorganization of social environment (any sign of social disorder leads to more disorder) Zimbardo Experiment (prisoners vs prison officers) Broken windows theory- cracking down on smaller crimes such as misdemeanors decreases more serious crimes from happening 5 . Labeling Theory Deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do but from how others define their actions People see how they are labeled and may accept the label as being “true” People behave the way they think someone with their label should behave

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