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Introduction to Sociology STUDY GUIDE – EXAM 2 ●Types of deviance ○What is deviant behavior? ■nonconformity/violation of a set of cultural norms ○Informal Deviance ■Minor transgression of norms ●Ex: picking one’s nose, belching loudly, or standing unnecessarily close to another person ○Violation of social norms ○Formal Deviance/Crime ■Violation of norms that have been codified into “law” ■Violation of formally enacted laws ●Ex: robbery, theft, rape, murder, assault ●Crime ○Special kind of deviant behavior ○They violate criminal law ○They are punishable with fines, jail terms, or other sanctions ●Sociological theories of deviance ○Deviance is inevitable and performs useful functions: ■Can bring people together ■Force innovation and change ●functionalism-Durkheim ○Collective conscience: Common set of norms and beliefs about how the world works ■Binds people together, encourages conformity ■Defines what is considered deviant and how it is punished. ○Anomie:sense of normlessness or despair that arises when social norms no longer strongly guide individual behavior & social life is no longer predictable ■Defining deviance can re-establish collective conscience, clarifying moral boundaries. ■Deviance can also push / change those boundaries ○THEORIES OF DEVIANCE: (6) ■1. Biological/Psychological●Biological theories of deviance see crime and deviant behavior as a form of illness caused by pathological factors specific to certain types of individuals. They assume that
some people are "born criminals" — they're biologically different from non-criminals. The underlying logic is that these individuals have a mental and physical inferiority which causes an inability to learn and follow rules. This in turn leads to criminal behavior.■2. Strain Theory (Robert Merton) ■3. Differential Association Theory ●Deviant behavior is learned through social interaction with people associated with crime ■4. Social Disorganization Theory “Broken Windows Theory” ●Deviance is caused by broad social factors-disorganization of social environment (any sign of social disorder leads to more disorder) ●Zimbardo Experiment (prisoners vs prison officers) ●Broken windows theory- cracking down on smaller crimes such as misdemeanors decreases more serious crimes from happening ■5. Labeling Theory ●Deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do but from how others define their actions ●People see how they are labeled and may accept the label as being “true” ●People behave the way they think someone with their label should behave ●