Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - 1 Argument premise conclusion validity...

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1. Argument, premise, conclusion, validity, soundness Argument- series of sentences that consist of a conclusion and premises Premise- a proposition supporting or helping to support a conclusion Conclusion- a proposition concluded or inferred from the premises of an argument. Valid- the premises provide adequate reasons for the conclusion to be true Sound- it has a valid argument AND true premises The 3-O God: Omnibenevloent, omnipotent, omniscient Inductive argument: - Conclusions supported by probability - Perceived from instances about general instances - Inductive arguments are usually probable 2. Anselm’s definition of God God- greatest possible being “something that which none greater can be thought” 3. Status of the premises of Anselm’s argument Deductive arguments 4. Anselm’s ontological argument for God’s existence Ontological = focuses on existence and being If you assume and prove the opposite, that means the original argument doesn’t exist Premises 1. God does not exist in reality 2. Conceptual distinction between mind and reality Santa Clause, Easter bunny, tooth fairy exist in mind but not reality Square circle, 1+1=3, contradictions don’t exist in mind and reality 3. God is something that which none greater can be thought 1
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4. Something that exists only in the mind could be greater if it exists in the mind AND reality 5. God exists in the mind and not in reality 6. God can exist in both mind and reality 7. The greatest possible being can be greater than he himself is, if God exists in mind and reality > just the mind. So God exists in mind and reality > God exists in mind only…CONTRADICTION Wait, one of these premises must be wrong because of the contradiction. He feels it’s the first premise. If the first premise leads to a contradiction then God must exist in reality 5. Aquinas’ cosmological arguments for the existence of God (in particular the first and third way) Premise #1: Every event must have a cause Premise #2: There cannot be an infinite chain of causes Conclusion: There must be a first cause and that is God 6. Status of the premises of the arguments 7. Aquinas’s claim in the first way that anything in motion must have been caused to be in motion by something else Everything moved in this world is moved by something else. To move is to bring the object from potential to actual energy and that can only be done by an actual being. You cannot be actual and potential at the same time. Therefore nothing can move itself; it’s a chain of events. 8. Aquinas’ claim that the first way that the series of causes of motion cannot be infinite Chain of causes is either infinite or not. If the chain is infinite then there wouldn’t be a first cause, second cause, etc. Therefore there would be no observable causes (no chain exists). Therefore chains are NOT infinite = they’re finite 9. Objections to Aquinas’ first way Objection 1: Why think that everything would have a first cause?
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