Chapter 29 Plants Part 1

Biology, 7th Edition (Book & CD-ROM)

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Chapter 29 Straight from the Book I. Land Plants evolved from algae A. Four key traits 1. Rose-shaped complexes for cellulose synthesis a. It is a rose-shaped array of proteins in the plasma membrane that makes cellulose 2. Peroxisome enzymes a. Enzymes that help minimize loss of organic products due to photorespiration 3. Structure of flagellated sperm a. For the land plants that have flagellated sperm (not all), their structure closely relates to the algae sperm 4. Formation of a phragmoplast (cytoskeleton with golgi vesicles) a. Some details of cell division occur only in land plants and algae. Like the formation of a phragmoplast. B. Adaptations enabling move to land 1. Some algae hang out around shallow waters. They easily dry out. So by natural selection, the algae that are most used to dry weather live longer. II. Terrestrial Adaptations A. Defining the plant kingdom 1. There are disputes going on as of now about what belongs to the kingdom plantae and what doesn’t. As of now, kingdom plantae includes embryophytes (plants w/ embryos) B. Derived traits of plants (traits that are in plants but not in algae) 1. Apical meristems a. They are localized regions of cell division at the tips of shoots and roots b. Terrestrial plants look for resources in two different places. i Light and CO 2 from the top of the plant ii Water and mineral nutrients in the soil c. Because they have two places for cell division, the plant is insured to get all its nutrients 2. Alternation of generations a. Generations go from haploid diploid haploid b. Gametes are haploid (single set of chromosomes) c. Sporophytes are diploid 3. Wallowed spores a. Plant spores are haploid reproductive cells that grow into gametophytes by mitosis. b. The sporangia produce these plant spores 4. Multicellular gametangia a. Archegonia (female) and antheridia (male) b. Sperm swim to the eggs through water droplets or water films 5. Multicellular dependent embryos a. Embryos develop from zygotes that are in the tissues of the female parent 1
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b. Tissues provide the embryo with nutrients. The embryo has placental transfer cells which enhance the transfer of nutrients c. Land plants are also known as embryophytes because they have this trait 6. Cuticle a. Because land plants are more prone to drying out, they have a cuticle which acts as waterproofing, to help prevent excessive water loss and also proves protection against microbial attack. 7. Secondary Compounds a. These are the products of secondary metabolic pathways, which branches off the primary metabolic pathway. b. Produce alkaloids, terpenes, tannins, etc. These all help in keeping predators away. The plant may have bitter test, strong odor, or toxic effect to keep predators away. C. Origin of Plants
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Chapter 29 Plants Part 1 - Chapter 29 Straight from the...

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