Respiration and Photosynthesis

Biology, 7th Edition (Book & CD-ROM)

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Photosynthesis Chapter 10 I. Chloroplast A. Found in cells of the mesophyll layer B. Chlorophyll 1. Gives leaves its green color 2. Drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast C. Stomata 1. Carbon dioxide enters and oxygen exits by way of pores called stomata (stoma) D. Stroma 1. Dense fluid within the chloroplast E. Thylakoids 1. An elaborate system of connected membranous sacs 2. Chlorophyll resides in the membranes of thylakoids II. Solar Energy A. Sunlight 1. Light is in a form of energy known as electromagnetic energy a. Travels in waves 2. Wavelength- difference between two crests of electromagnetic waves 3. Electromagnetic spectrum- all forms of energy a. Visible light – 380–750 nanometers i Violet = Shorter wavelength = higher energy ii Red = longer wavelength = lower energy B. Photosynthetic Pigments 1. Chlorophyll a a. Blue-yellow in color b. Violet-blue and red lights work best for photosynthesis since they’re absorbed c. Green is least effective color (so it’s reflected) 2. Chlorophyll b a. Yellow-green in color b. Absorbs blue, violet maybe a little bit orange 3. Carotenoids a. Vairous shades of yellow and orange b. Absorb violet and blue-green light c. Photoprotection- absorbs and dissipates excessive light energy that would otherwise damage chlorophyll C. Excitation of Chlorophyll 1. Chlorophyll absorbs light, but the energy does not disappear. 2. Instead an electron is elevated to an orbital where it has higher potential energy a. Electron becomes highly unstable 3. Electron drops down from its excited state, and the energy is released as heat D. Photosystem 1
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1. Composed of a reaction center surrounded by a number of light-harvesting complexes a. Light-harvesting complex- pigment molecules (chlorophyll a, b, or carotenoids) bound to proteins i Allows the photosystem to harvest light over a larger surface, and larger portion of the spectrum b. Reaction center- protein complex that includes two chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor
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Respiration and Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis Chapter 10...

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