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Chapter 12 Mitosis Meiosis

Biology, 7th Edition (Book & CD-ROM)

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Chapter 12 Mitosis I. Cell Division A. Terms 1. Genome- a cell’s DNA a. Prokaryotic genome is often a single long DNA molecule b. Eukaryotic genome has a number of molecules 2. Chromosomes- name of DNA when it’s not dividing 3. Somatic cells- all body cells except for the reproductive cell a. Have 2 sets of 23 chromosomes (one from each parent) 4. Gametes- reproductive cells a. 23 chromosomes 5. Chromatin- What chromosomes are made out of; DNA after replication B. Distribution of Chromosomes 1. Chromosome in fiber form when cell not dividing 2. After DNA duplication chromosomes condense a. Sister chromatid- half of the duplicated chromosome. Once they separate, they are considered to be chromosomes again 3. Centromere- the place where the two sister chromatids intersect II. Mitosis A. Phases of the cell cycle 1. One cell division takes about 24 hours 2. G 1 phase (5-6 hours) a. Cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles 3. S phase (10-12 hours) a. Cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles b. Chromosomes are duplicated 4. G 2 phase (4-6 hours) a. Cell grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles 5. Mitosis (less than 1 hour) B. Mitotic Spindle Centrosome + Spindle microtubule + Aster 1. Begins to form in the cytoplasm during prophase 2. Consists of microtubules.
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