Chapter 08 Notes

Chapter 08 Notes - Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among...

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Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among the Elements I. Development of the Periodic Table A. John Newlands 1. Discovered the law of octaves- every eight element has something in common 2. Rule only applied up to Calcium, so not accepted overall B. Mendeleev 1. Periodic table includes 66 elements C. Moseley 1. Correlation between atomic number and frequency of X rays generated by  bombarding an element with high energy electrons 2. Atomic number increases in the same order as atomic mass D. Electron configurations of elements help to explain the recurrence of physical and  chemical properties II. Periodic Classification of Elements A. Categories of elements 1. Representative elements- elements in group 1A through 7A which have incompletely  filled s or p subshells 2. Noble gasses a. Have a completely filled p subshell 3. Transition metals a. Elements in 1B, and 3B through 8B that have incompletely filled d subshells b. Transition metals share many characteristics that set them apart from other  elements 4. Group 2B elements a. Neither transition nor representative metals 5. Lanthanides and actinides a. F block transition elements 6. Arranged in periodic table according to valence electrons (outer electrons of an  atom) B. Representing free elements in Chemical Equations 1. No rule for nomentals a. HOFBrINCl! Diatomic molecules 2. All noble gasses are monoatomic 3. Pretty much everything else is monatomic too C. Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions 1. In the formation of a cation one or more electrons are removed from the highest  occupied n shell
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2. In the formation of an anion one or more electrons are added to the highest partially 
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Chapter 08 Notes - Chapter 8 Periodic Relationships Among...

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