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midterm notes master copy

midterm notes master copy - Mid-Term Review Axelrod Chapter...

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Mid-Term Review Axelrod Chapter 2: Martin S. Soroos-Global Institutions and the Environment: An Evolutionary Perspective International regimes- the combination of international institutions, customary norms and principles, and formal treaty commitments that guide how states relate to a specific subject, problem, or region. Pre-Stockholm Era (Prior-1968) o UN begins taking steps in addressing environmental problems o Attention directed toward narrowly defined ecological problems o No major IGO’s established whose mission was broadly environmental Stockholm Era (1968-1987) o Public concern builds about environmental problems, driven by NGO’s DDT, above ground nuclear testing, oil spills Ecocide-Swedish coined term to define American tactics of destroying jungle cover for Nietnames militants o Sweden proposes United Nations conference on the Human Environment to be held in Stockholm in 1972 Following the conference, upon its reccomendation the UN establishes the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) Conference established blueprint for major world conferences Environmental concern came primarily from industrialized countries prompting them to create environmental agencies of their own (EPA) o Rio De Janeiro Era (1987-Present) Earth Summit (Rio 1992) Problems receiving most attention: ozone depletion, climate change, loss of bio-diversity, rapid shrinkage of tropical forests, the decline of marine fisheries, and sustainable development for developing countries Agenda 21- set of principles and plan of action adopted by the conference as well as major international treaties on climate change and biological diversity and a statement of forest principles UN General Assembly followed up by creating the Commission on Sustainable Development to implement Agenda 21 Not very successful because nations give it little authority and financial support o UN General Assembly International debating society
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Only permanent forum on which a broad range of issues are discussed Convened Stockholm Conference in 1972 Facilitates the creation of international treaty law by sponsoring negotiation sessions Plays key role in addressing environmental problems by delegating tasks and responsibilities to other institutions Primary creator of IGO’s including those with environmental responsiblities Arena of choice for developing countries because each delegation is granted one vote GA was the forum that oversaw the merging of the environmental and developmental agendas within the goal of sustainable development o UNEP Created in 1972 after Stockholm Conference to become the institutional focus for environmental activities within the U.N system Role was to be limited to catalyzing, facilitating, and coordinating environmental programs both by countries and IGO’s UNEP successful in stimulating the development of international environmental law and policy Montreal Protocol-timely and comprehensive response
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